Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Adults range from 1.9-5.6 cm in length. Specimens are either greenish or brownish in color, often with dark stripes that often run the length of the body (Stebbins 2003). Males have a tan or greenish throat while the throat of females is typically white. Hyla eximia tadpoles have a brown dorsum with minute silvery-gold flecks, and a dark venter tinged with pale gold (Stebbins 2003).

  • Degenhardt, W.G., Painter, C.W., and Price, A.H. (1996). Amphibians and Reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in the Sierra Madre Occidental from southern Durango and the Sierra Madre Oriental from southwestern Tamaulipas southward to the Cordillera Volcánica and the Sierra Madre del Sur in Guerrero, Mexico. It is found at elevations of about 910-2,900m asl (Stebbins, 1985).
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Distribution and Habitat

This species is generally found in the mountains (Sierra Madre Occidental to Guerrero) of Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico (Degenhardt 1996). Hyla eximia usually reside at high elevations, ranging from 900 m to 2900 m. This species is also found along streams, in wet meadows, in coniferous forests, and temporarily in roadside ditches. An isolated population exists in the Huachuca Mountains in Arizona.

  • Degenhardt, W.G., Painter, C.W., and Price, A.H. (1996). Amphibians and Reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype; Paralectotype for Hyla eximia
Catalog Number: USNM 15320
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Mirador, Veracruz, Mexico
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17: 194.; Kellogg, R. 1932. United States National Museum Bulletin. (160): 168.; Paralectotype: Cope, E. D. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17: 194.; Kellogg, R. 1932. United States National Museum Bulletin. (160): 168.
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Syntype for Hyla eximia
Catalog Number: USNM 3248
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1853
Locality: Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico
  • Syntype: Baird, S. F. 1854. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 7 (2): 61.
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Syntype; Paralectotype for Hyla eximia
Catalog Number: USNM 15319
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Mirador, Veracruz, Mexico
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17: 194.; Kellogg, R. 1932. United States National Museum Bulletin. (160): 168.; Paralectotype: Cope, E. D. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17: 194.; Kellogg, R. 1932. United States National Museum Bulletin. (160): 168.
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Holotype for Hyla eximia
Catalog Number: USNM 84403
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1919
Locality: Puebla, Mexico
  • Holotype: Taylor, E. H. 1939. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 25 (19): 430, plate 47, figure 2.
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Paratype for Hyla eximia
Catalog Number: USNM 134262
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1940
Locality: Omiltemi, 6 mi E of, Guerrero, Mexico
Elevation (m): 2134 to 2134
  • Paratype: Taylor, E. H. 1941. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 27 (part I) (7): 118, plate 5, figure 1.
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Syntype; Lectotype for Hyla eximia
Catalog Number: USNM 15321
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Mirador, Veracruz, Mexico
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17: 194.; Kellogg, R. 1932. United States National Museum Bulletin. (160): 168.; Lectotype: Cope, E. D. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17: 194.; Kellogg, R. 1932. United States National Museum Bulletin. (160): 168.
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Syntype; Paralectotype for Hyla eximia
Catalog Number: USNM 15318
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Preparation: Ethanol
Locality: Mirador, Veracruz, Mexico
  • Syntype: Cope, E. D. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17: 194.; Kellogg, R. 1932. United States National Museum Bulletin. (160): 168.; Paralectotype: Cope, E. D. 1865. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 17: 194.; Kellogg, R. 1932. United States National Museum Bulletin. (160): 168.
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Paratype for Hyla eximia
Catalog Number: USNM 139247
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: Female;
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1956
Locality: Jacotepec, 3 mi NW of, near Lake Chapala, Jalisco, Mexico
  • Paratype: Maslin, T. P. 1957. Herpetologica. 13 (2): 81, figure 1.
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Holotype for Hyla eximia
Catalog Number: USNM 139246
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Amphibians & Reptiles
Sex/Stage: Male;
Preparation: Ethanol
Year Collected: 1956
Locality: Jacotepec, 3 mi NW of, near Lake Chapala, Jalisco, Mexico
  • Holotype: Maslin, T. P. 1957. Herpetologica. 13 (2): 81, figure 1.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is found in mesquite-grassland, scrub forests and pine-oak forest. It has been recorded in bromeliads on pine trees (Duellman, 2001). It breeds in shallow pools, ponds, and slow moving streams. Egg masses are laid in loose clumps attached to vegetation in shallow water.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hyla eximia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Geoffrey Hammerson, Luis Canseco-Márquez

Reviewer/s
Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox and Bruce Young)

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

History
  • 2004
    Least Concern
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Population

Population
There are numerous secure populations of this species.

Population Trend
Stable
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Breeding occurs during summer, starting during the rain in early July with metamorphosis generally occurring by late August. Newly hatched tadpoles are 4.9-5.2 cm in length with tails that compose roughly one half to two-thirds of their bodies. The tails slowly decrease and metamorphosis occurs when the tadpoles reach 38 mm (generally 6-11 weeks). The breeding period can be from two to eight days. Both long duration and ephemeral breeding sites have been found; site location is dependent on weather and density of predators in a given area. Eggs are laid in small clusters attached to vegetation (New Mexico Department of Game and Fish).

  • Degenhardt, W.G., Painter, C.W., and Price, A.H. (1996). Amphibians and Reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known threats to this species.
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Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Survival is 5x greater in the absence of salamanders. Other threats include predation and competition from introduced species (nonnative fish including bass and catfish, and crayfish), limited distribution and restricted ranges, and overcollection.

  • Degenhardt, W.G., Painter, C.W., and Price, A.H. (1996). Amphibians and Reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The range of this species includes numerous protected areas.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

Hyla eximia have very toxic skin, which can irritate human eyes after handling (Stebbins 2003).

  • Degenhardt, W.G., Painter, C.W., and Price, A.H. (1996). Amphibians and Reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
  • Stebbins, R. C. (2003). Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
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Wikipedia

Mountain tree frog

The mountain tree frog, Hyla eximia, is a species of frog in the Hylidae family endemic to Mexico. Its natural habitats are temperate forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, rivers, intermittent rivers, swamps, freshwater marshes, and intermittent freshwater marshes.

References[edit]


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