Caprellid, "Ghost" or "Skeleton" shrimps, so called for their skeletal appearance. Amphipod crustaceans, easily distinguished by the elongate stick-like body form and reduction of the abdominal appendages. Head is generally fused with pereonite 1. Pereopods on first 2 segments (pereonites) are most flexible and called gnathopods; gnathopods 2 being the largest, used in defense, feeding and substrate attachment. In many species pereopods 3 and 4 may also be reduced or absent. Gills on pereonites 3 + 4, rarely on pereonite 2. Pereopods 5 - 7 much smaller than 1 + 2, used for clinging to the substratum. In females, brood plates (öostegites) develop on pereonites 3 + 4. Much remains to be learnt about their biology, ecology and in many cases changing distributions.
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Native to Sea of Japan (Russia and Japan); introduced widely in northern hemisphere and New Zealand in the southern hemisphere.
National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC: (NMNH); University of Alaska, Fairbanks
Introduced throughout the northern hemisphere and to New Zealand in the southern hemisphere. Very abundant during summer months. Distinguished from C. acanthogaster: pereonite 2+3 covered in fine setae in mature male, gnathopod 2 poison spine less developed, gills are shorter.
Length: 6-49mm. Head rounded. Most extreme body projections described here (fully developed adult male): Cephalon and pereonite 1 smooth (although with dense long setae, which also extend over gnathopod 2); pereonite 2 with 1-3 pairs dorsal spines and 2 pairs lateral spines (base of gnathopods 2 and posterior); pereonite 3 with 7 pairs dorsal spines and 3-7 spines near attachment of gills; pereonite 4 with 8 pairs dorsal spines and 3-7 spines near attachment of gills, 1 pair lateral spines at both anterior and posterior margin; pereonite 5 with 5 pairs dorsal spines, 1 pair antero-lateral spines; pereonites 6 and 7 with 2 pairs of spines dorsally (median and posterior). Antenna 1 longer than ½ body length. Antenna 2 less than ½ length of antenna 1; peduncle with two ventral rows of setae. Gnathopod 1 short, with setation on posterior margin; propodus with 2 grasping spines, grasping margin of dactylus and propodus serrate. Gnathopod 2 long, densely covered in setae; propodus palm with large projection proximo-medial and a distal triangular projection ; dactylus heavy and scimitar-shaped; basis having an antero-lateral projection distally. Gills oval to elliptical. Pereopods 5 - 7 propodus with 2 grasping spines. Females differ in presence of 1 pair spines on cephalon and posterior of pereonite 1 (not always present)
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.
Depth range (m): 25.8 - 25.8
Temperature range (°C): 10.596 - 10.596
Nitrate (umol/L): 3.550 - 3.550
Salinity (PPS): 34.409 - 34.409
Oxygen (ml/l): 6.153 - 6.153
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.413 - 0.413
Silicate (umol/l): 2.707 - 2.707
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
In fouling communities on floats and pilings, on many substrates (hydroids, bryozoans, ascidians etc.)
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Caprella mutica
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Caprella mutica
Public Records: 305
Specimens with Barcodes: 314
Species With Barcodes: 1
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