The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum 4: 2342, f. 2247–48. 1838. (Arbor. Frutic. Brit.)
  • Bailey, L.H. & E.Z. Bailey. 1976. Hortus Third i–xiv, 1–1290. MacMillan, New York.
  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Companion to the Botanical Magazine 2: 93. 1836. (Companion Bot. Mag.)
  • Douglas ex J. Forbes. 1839. In: Pinetum Woburn.: 125, t. 44.
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Farjon, A. 1990. Pinaceae. [Regnum Vegetabile Vol. 121]. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Munz, P. A. 1968. Suppl. Calif. Fl. 1–224. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Pinetum Woburnense 125, pl. 44. 1839. (Pinet. Woburn.)
  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.
    1. Antos, Joseph A., and Donald B. Zobel. 1986. Seedling establishment  in forests affected by tephra from Mount St. Helens. American Journal of  Botany 73(4): 495-499.
    3. Brooke, Robert C., E. B. Peterson, and V. J. Krajina. 1970. The  subalpine mountain hemlock zone. Ecology of Western North America  2(2):153-349.
    5. Cameron, Ian Raymond. 1979. Foliar analysis of young amabilis fir: a  comparison of well-grown and poorly grown trees. Thesis (B.S.),  University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. 25 p.
    7. Carkin, Richard E., Jerry F. Franklin, Jack Booth, and Clark E.  Smith. 1978. Seeding habits of upper-slope tree species. IV. Seed flight  of noble fir and Pacific silver fir. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  PNW-312. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station,  Portland, OR. 10 p.
    9. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    11. Fowells, H. A., comp. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC. 762 p.
    13. Franklin, Jerry F., and Gary A. Ritchie. 1970. Phenology of cone and  shoot development of noble fir and some associated true firs. Forest  Science 16(3):356-364.
    15. Franklin, Jerry F., Richard Carkin, and Jack Booth. 1974. Seeding  habits of upper-slope tree species. 1. A 12-year record of cone  production. USDA Forest Service, Research Note PNW-213. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 12 p.
    17. Franklin, Jerry F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of  Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  PNW-8. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland,  OR. 417 p.
    19. Franklin, Jerry F., and Francis R. Herman. 1973. True fir-mountain  hemlock. In Silvicultural systems for the major forest types of  the United States. p. 13-15. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture  Handbook 445. Washington, DC.
    21. Frenzen, Peter M., and Jerry F. Franklin. 1985. Establishment of  conifers from seed on tephra deposited by the 1980 eruptions of Mount  St. Helens, Washington. American Midland Naturalist 114:84-97.
    23. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1977. Western forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. Washington,  DC. 654 p.
    25. Gessel, Stanley P., and Gordon H. Orions. 1967. Rodent damage to  fertilized Pacific silver fir in western Washington. Ecology 48:694-697. 
    27. Grier, C. C., and S. W. Running. 1977. Leaf area of mature  northwestern coniferous forests: relation to site water balance. Ecology  58:893-899.
    29. Grier, C. C., K. A. Vogt, M. R. Keyes, and R. L. Edmonds. 1981.  Biomass distribution and above- and below-ground production in young and  mature Abies amabilis ecosystems of the Washington Cascades.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 11:155-167.
    31. Harrington, Constance A., and Marshall D. Murray. 1983. Patterns of  height growth in western true firs. In Proceedings of the  Biology and Management of True Fir in the Pacific Northwest Symposium.  Contribution 45. p. 209-214. C. D. Oliver and R. M. Kenady, eds.  University of Washington College of Forest Resources, Institute of  Forest Resources, Seattle.
    33. Hedlin, A. F. 1974. Cone and seed insects of British Columbia.  Environment Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report  BC-X-90. Pacific Forest Research Centre, Victoria, BC. 63 p.
    35. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    37. Herman, Francis R. 1967. Growth comparisons of upper-slope conifers  in the Cascade Range. Northwest Science 41(l):51-52.
    39. Herring, L. J., and D. E. Etheridge. 1976. Advance amabilis fir  regeneration in the Vancouver Forest District. British Columbia Forest  Service/Canadian Forestry Service, Joint Report 5. Pacific Forest  Research Centre, Victoria, BC. 23 p.
    41. Hetherington, J. C. 1965. The dissemination, germination and survival  of seed on the west coast of Vancouver Island from western hemlock and  associated species. British Columbia Forest Service, Research Note 39.  Victoria, BC. 22 p.
    43. Hinckley, Thomas M., Hiromi Imoto, Lee S. Lacker, Y. Morikawa, K. A.  Vogt, C. C. Grier, M. R. Keyes, R. 0. Teskey, and V. Seymour. 1984.  Impact of tephra deposition on growth in conifers: the year of the  eruption. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14:731-739.
    45. Hoyer, Gerald E., and Francis R. Herman. 1989. Height-age and site  index curves for Pacific silver fir in the Pacific Northwest. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-418. Pacific Northwest Research  Station, Portland, OR. 33 p.
    47. Johnson, D. W., D. W. Cole, C. S. Bledsoe, K. Cromack, R. L. Edmonds,  S. P. Gessel, C. C. Grier, B. N. Richards, and K. A. Vogt. 1981.  Nutrient cycling in forests of the Pacific Northwest. In Analysis  of coniferous forest ecosystems in the Western United States. p.  186-232. R. L. Edmonds, ed. Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.
    49. Kotar, John. 1972. Ecology of Abies amabilis in relation to  its altitudinal distribution and in contrast to its common associate  Tsuga heterophylla. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Washington,  Seattle. 171 p.
    51. Krajina, V. J. 1969. Ecology of forest trees in British Columbia.  Ecology of Western North America 2(l):1-146.
    53. Minore, Don. 1979. Comparative autecological attributes of  northwestern tree species: a literature review. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report PNW-87. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 72 p.
    55. Mitchell, R. G. 1966. Infestation characteristics of the balsam  woolly aphid. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-35. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 18 p.
    57. Morrison, D. J., and A. L. S. Johnson. 1970. Seasonal variation of  stump infection by Fomes annosus in coastal British Columbia.  Forestry Chronicle 46(3):200-202.
    59. Murray, Marshall D., and Daniel L. Treat. 1980. Pacific silver fir  in the Coast Range of southwestern Washington. Northwest Science  54:119-120.
    61. Oliver, Chadwick Dearing, A. B. Adams, and Robert J. Zasoski. 1985.  Disturbance patterns and forest development in a recently glaciated  valley in the northwestern Cascade Range of Washington, U.S.A. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 15:221-232.
    63. Owens, J. H., and M. Molder. 1977. Vegetative bud development and  cone differentiation in Abies amabilis. Canadian Journal of  Botany 55:992-1009.
    65. Owens, J. H., and M. Molder. 1977. Sexual reproduction of Abies  amabilis. Canadian Journal of Botany 55:2253-2667.
    67. Packee, Edmond Charles. 1976. An ecological approach toward yield  optimization through species allocation. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of  Minnesota, St. Paul. 740 p.
    69. Packee, E. C., C. D. Oliver, and P. D. Crawford. 1983. Ecology of  Pacific silver fir. In Proceedings of the biology and management  of true fir in the Pacific Northwest Symposium. Contribution 45. p.  19-34. C. D. Oliver and R. M. Kenady, eds. University of Washington  College of Forest Resources, Institute of Forest Resources, Seattle. 
    71. Parker, W. H., G. E. Bradfield, J. Maza, and S.-C. Liu. 1979.  Analysis of variation in leaf and twig characteristics of Abies  lasiocarpa and Abies amabilis from north-coastal British  Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 57:1354-1366.
    73. Schopmeyer, C. S., tech. coord. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450.  Washington, DC. 883 p.
    75. Scott, D. R. M., J. N. Long, and J. Kotar. 1976. Comparative  ecological behavior of western hemlock in the Washington Cascades. In  Proceedings, western hemlock management conference. Contribution 34.  p. 26-33. William A. Atkinson and Robert J. Zasoski, eds. University of  Washington, College of Forest Resources, Institute of Forest Resources,  Seattle. 317 p.
    77. Teskey, Robert 0., Thomas M. Hinckley, and Charles C. Grier. 1984.  Temperature-induced change in the water relations of Abies amabilis  (Dougl.) Forbes. Plant Physiology 74: 77-80.
    79. Thornburgh, Dale Alden. 1969. Dynamics of the true fir-hemlock  forests of the west slope of the Washington Cascade Range. Thesis  (Ph.D.), University of Washington, Seattle. 210 p.
    81. Tucker, Gabriel F., Thomas M. Hinckley, Jerry Leverenz, and Shimei  Jiang. 1987. Adjustment to foliar morphology in the acclimation of  understory Pacific silver fir following clear cutting. Forest Ecology  and Management 21:249-268.
    83. Turner, J., and M. J. Singer. 1976. Nutrient distribution and  cycling in a subalpine coniferous forest ecosystem. Journal of Applied  Ecology 13:295-30 1.
    85. Ugolini, K C., R. Minden, H. Dawson, and J. Zachara. 1977. An  example of soil processes in the Abies amabilis zone of central  Cascades, Washington. Soil Science 124(5):291-302.
    87. Vitousek, P., J. R. Gosz, C. C. Grier, J. M. Melillo, W. A. Reiners,  and R. L. Todd. 1979. Nitrate losses from disturbed ecosystems. Science  204:469-474.
    89. Vogt, Kristiina A., Robert L. Edmonds, and Charles C. Grier. 1981.  Seasonal changes in biomass and vertical distribution of mycorrhizal and  fibrous-textured conifer fine roots in 23 and 180-year old subalpine  Abies amabilis stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  11:223-229.
    91. Vogt, Kristiina A., R. Dahlgren, F. Ugolini, D. Zabowski, E. E.  Moore, and R. J. Zasoski. 1987. Aluminum, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Mn, Cu, Zn and  P in above- and below-ground biomass. 1. Abies amabilis and Tsuga  mertensiana. Biogeochemistry 4:277-294.
    93. Walters, J., and P. G. Haddock. 1966. Juvenile height growth of  eight coniferous species on five Douglas-fir sites. University of  British Columbia Faculty of Forestry, Research Paper 75. Vancouver. 16  p.
    95. Waring, R. H., and J. F. Franklin. 1979. Evergreen coniferous forests  of the Pacific Northwest. Science 204:1380-1386.
    97. Williams, Carroll B., Jr. 1968. Juvenile height growth of four  upper-slope conifers in Washington and northern Oregon Cascade Range.  USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-70. Pacific Northwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 13 p.
    99. Williams, Carroll B., Jr. 1968. Seasonal height growth of upper  slope conifers. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-62. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 7 p.
    101. Zavarin, E., K. Snajberk, and W. B. Critchfield. 1979. Monoterpene  variability of Abies amabilis cortical oleoresin. Biochemical  Systematics 1:87-93.
    103. Zobel, Donald B., Arthur McKee, Glenn M. Hawk, and C.T. Dyrness.  1976. Relationships of environment to composition, structure, and  diversity of forest communities of the central western Cascades of  Oregon. Ecological Monographs 46:135-156.


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