The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Aizenberg, J., Sundar, V.C., Yablon, A.D., Weaver, J.C., Chen, G. Biological glass fibers: Correlation between optical and structural properties. PNAS March 9, 2004, vol. 101, no. 10, pp. 3358–3363.
  • Bayer, F., H. Owre. 1968. The Free-Living Lower Invertebrates. New York: The Macmillan Company.
  •, 1999-2000. "Venus's Flower Basket" (On-line). Accessed October 27, 2000 at
  • Buchsbaum, R., M. Buchsbaum, J. Pearse, V. Pearse. 1987. Animals Without Backbones. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
  • Coleman, N. 1991. Encyclopedia of Marine Animals. Australia: Angus & Robertson.
  • Dance, S.P. 1986. The Cumingian Era. Chapter 6 In A History of Shell Collecting.
  • Haeckel, E. 1872. Die Kalkschwämme : Eine Monographie
  • Hickman, C., L. Roberts, A. Larson. 1997. Integrated Principles of Zoology. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc..
  • Hooper, J.N.A. & van Soest, R.W.M.) 1388-1434. Plenum Press.
  • Jensen, A. 1979. Wildlife of the Oceans. New York: Chanticleer Press, Inc..
  • Kaestner, A. 1967. Invertebrate Zoology. New York: A Division of John Wiley & Sons.
  • Owen, R. 1841. Description of a new genus and species of sponge (Euplectella aspergillum, O.) Zool. Soc. Trans. 3 (2): 203-205, 1 pl.
  • Owen, R. 1841. On a new genus and species of sponge (Euplectella aspergillum). Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 3 (2): 203-206. External link.
  • Pearse, V., J. Pearse, M. Buchsbaum, R. Buchsbaum. 1987. Living Invertebrates. Pacific Grove, California: The Boxwood Press.
  • Sundar, VC; Yablon, AD; Grazul, JL; Ilan, M; Aizenberg, J. 2003. Fibre-optical features of a glass sponge. Nature. 424(6951): 899-900.
  • Tabachnick, K.R. 2002. Family Euplectellidae Gray, 1867. In: Systema Porifera. (Eds.
  • Tabachnick, K.R., Janussen, D. and Menschenina, L.L. New Australian Hexactinellida (Porifera) with a revision of Euplectella aspergillum. 2008. Zootaxa 1866: 7–68
  • Tabachnick, K.R.; Janussen, D.; Menschenina, L.L. 2008. New Australian Hexactinellida (Porifera) with a revision of Euplectella aspergillum. Zootaxa 1866: 7-68.
  • Van Soest R.W.M, Boury-Esnault N., Hooper J.N.A., Rützler K., de Voogd N.J., Alvarez de Glasby B., Hajdu E., Pisera A.B., Manconi R., Schoenberg C., Janussen D., Tabachnick K.R. Klautau M., Picton B., Kelly M., Vacelet J., Dohrmann M., D (2015). WoRMS Porifera: World Porifera database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Weaver, James C.; Aizenberg, Joanna; Fantner, Georg E.; Kisailus, David; Woesz, Alexander; Allen, Peter; Fields, Kirk; Porter, Michael J.; Zok, Frank W.; Hansma, Paul K.; Fratzl, Peter; Morse, Daniel E. 2007. Hierarchical assembly of the siliceous skeletal lattice of the hexactinellid sponge Euplectella aspergillum. Journal of Structural Biology. 158(1): 93-106.
  • van Soest, R. (2009). Euplectella aspergillum Owen, 1841. In: Van Soest, R.W.M; Boury-Esnault, N.; Hooper, J.N.A.; Rützler, K.; de Voogd, N.J.; Alvarez de Glasby, B.; Hajdu, E.; Pisera, A.B.; Manconi, R.; Schoenberg, C.; Klautau, M.; Picton, B.; Kelly, M.; Vacelet, J.; Dohrmann, M.; Díaz, M.-C.; Cárdenas, P.; Carballo, J. L. (2016). World Porifera database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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