The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • A Description of the Genus Pinus 1: 7, pl. 3. 1803. (Descr. Pinus)
  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 5: 389. 1804. (Encycl.)
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Histoire des Arbres Forestiers de l'Amerique Septentrionale 1: 49, pl. 2. 1810. (Hist. Arbr. Forest.)
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Lamb. 1803. In: Descr. Pinus 1: 7, t. 3.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Porsild, A. E. & W. Cody. 1980. Vasc. Pl. Continental Northw. Terr. Canada i–viii, 1–607. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
  • Tarroux E; DesRochers A. 2011. Effect of natural root grafting on growth response of jack pine (Pinus banksiana; Pinaceae). American Journal of Botany. 98(6): 967–974.
    1. Anonymous. 1977. Atelier de travail sur l'aménagement du pin  gris. Quebec Ministère Terres et Forêts/Pêches et  Environment, Canada, Service des Forêts Val-d'Or. 372 p.
    3. Ackerman, R. F., and J. L. Farrar. 1965. The effect of light and  temperature on the germination of jack pine and lodgepole pine seeds.  University of Toronto Faculty of Forestry, Technical Report 5. Toronto,  ON. 41 p.
    5. Alban, David H., and Paul R. Laidly. 1982. Generalized biomass  equations for jack pine and red pine in the Lake States. Canadian  Journal of Forest Research 12:913-921.
    7. Anderson, Neil A., and Ralph L. Anderson. 1965. The susceptibility of  jack pine and lodgepole pine and their hybrids to sweetfern rust and  eastern gall rust. USDA Forest Service, Research Note LS-56. Lake States  Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 4 p.
    9. Argus, G. W. 1966. Botanical investigations in northeastern  Saskatchewan: the subarctic Patterson-Hasbala Lakes region. Canadian  Field-Naturalist 80:119-143.
    11. Argus, G. W., and H. M. Raup. The Lake Athabaska sand dunes of  Saskatchewan and Alberta. II. The flora and the origin of endemism.  Draft.
    13. Armson, K. A., J. Perez de la Garza, and R. J. Fessenden. 1975.  Rooting cuttings of conifer seedlings. Forestry Chronicle 51:109-110. 
    15. Baker, W. D. 1980. Jack pine cone and seed quantity and quality from  Gogama, Ontario. Thesis (M.S., Forestry), University of Toronto, ON. 135  p.
    17. Bella, 1. E. 1968. Jack pine yield tables for southeastern Manitoba.  Department Publication 1207. Canadian Department Forestry and Rural  Development, Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, ON. 15 p.
    19. Benzie, John W. 1977. Manager's handbook for jack pine in the North  Central States. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NC-32.  North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 18 p.
    21. Boldt, Charles E. 1969. Jack pine plantations in the Nebraska sand  hills. Journal of Forestry 67:96-100.
    23. Braun, E. Lucy. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America.  Hafner Publishing, New York. 596 p.
    25. Brown, Robert Thorson. 1967. Influence of naturally occurring  compounds on germination and growth of jack pine. Ecology 48:542-546. 
    27. Buckman, Robert E. 1964. Twenty-two-year results of a precommercial  thinning experiment in jack pine. USDA Forest Service, Research Note  LS-46. Lakes States Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 2 p.
    29. Cayford, J. H., and A. Bickerstaff. 1968. Man-made forests in Canada.  Forestry Branch Publication 1240. Canadian Department Fisheries and  Forestry, Ottawa, ON. 68 p.
    31. Cayford, J. H., Z. Chrosciewicz, and H. P. Sims. 1967. A review of  silvicultural research in jack pine. Forestry Branch Publication 1173.  Canadian Department Forestry and Rural Development, Canadian Forestry  Service, Ottawa, ON. 209 p.
    33. Cecich, Robert A. 1979. Ovule development and abortion in Pinus  banksiana. In Proceedings, IUFRO Symposium on Flowering and Seed  Development in Forest Trees, May 1518, 1978, Starkville, Mississippi. p.  33-40. Frank Bonner, ed. USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment  Station, New Orleans, LA.
    35. Cecich, Robert A., and Thomas D. Rudolph. 1982. Time of jack pine  seed maturity in Lake States provenances. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 12:368-373.
    37. Chrosciewicz, Z. 1963. The effects of site on jack pine growth in  northern Ontario. Canadian Department Forestry, Research Branch  Publication 1015. Ottawa, ON. 28 p.
    39. Cooley, John H. 1972. Site preparation for jack pine on grayling  sands. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NC-138. North Central Forest  Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 3 p.
    41. Critchfield, William B., and Elbert L. Little, Jr. 1966. Geographic  distribution of the pines of the world. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Miscellaneous Publication 991. Washington, DC. 97 p.
    43. Crow, T. R. 1971. Estimation of biomass in an even-aged stand ...  regression and "mean tree" techniques. In Forest  Biomass Studies. p. 35-48. University of Maine Press, Orono.
    45. Curtis, John D., and Richard A. Popham. 1972. The developmental  anatomy of long-branch terminal buds of Pinus banksiana. American  Journal of Botany 59:194-202.
    47. Doak, Clifton Childress. 1935. Evolution of foliar types, dwarf  shoots, and cone scales of Pinus. Illinois Biological Monographs  13:1-106.
    49. Duffield, J. W. 1954. The importance of species hybridization and  polyploidy in forest tree improvement. Journal of Forestry 52:645-646. 
    51. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    53. Ferguson, M. C. 1904. Contributions to the knowledge of the life  history of Pinus with special reference to sporogenesis, the  development of the gametophytes and fertilization. Proceedings of the  Washington Academy of Sciences 6:1-202.
    55. Foster, Neil W. 1974. Annual macroelement transfer from Pinus  banksiana Lamb. forest to soil. Canadian Journal of Forest Research  4:470-476.
    57. Fowler, D. P. 1965. Natural self-fertilization in three jack pines  and its implications in seed orchard management. Forest Science  11:55-58.
    59. Godman, Richard M., and J. H. Cooley. 1970. Effect of initial spacing  on jack pine growth and yield. Michigan Academician 2:107-111.
    61. Godman, Richard M., and Gilbert A. Mattson. 1976. Seed crops and  regeneration problems of 19 species in northeastern Wisconsin. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper NC-123. North Central Forest Experiment  Station, St. Paul, MN. 5 p.
    63. Green, D. C., and D. F. Grigal. 1978. Generalized biomass estimation  equations for jack pine (Pinus banksiana). University of  Minnesota, Forestry Research Notes 268. St. Paul. 4 p,
    65. Green, D. C., and D. F. Grigal. 1980. Nutrient accumulations in jack  pine stands on deep and shallow soils over bedrock. Forest Science  26:325-333.
    67. Haissig, Bruce E. 1979. Influence of arylesters of indole-3-acetic  and indole-3-butyric acids on adventitious root primordium initiation  and development. Physiologia Plantarum 47:29-33.
    69. Harlow, W. M., W. A. Cote, Jr., and A. C. Day. 1964. The opening  mechanism of pine cone scales. Journal of Forestry 62:539-540.
    71. Hedlin, Alan F., Harry 0. Yates III, David Cibrian Tovar, and others.  1980. Cone and seed insects of North American conifers. Canadian  Forestry Service, Ottawa; USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC; and  Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidrdulicos, Universidad Autónoma  Chapingo, Chapingo, Mexico. 122 p.
    73. Hegyi, F. 1972. Dry matter distribution in jack pine stands in  northern Ontario. Forestry Chronicle 48:193-197.
    75. Hosie, R. C. 1979. Native trees of Canada. 8th ed. Fitzhenry &  Whiteside, in cooperation with Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, ON.  380 p.
    77. Jeffers, R. M. 1972. Cone characteristics and seed yield in jack  pine. In Proceedings, Nineteenth Northeastern Forest Tree  Improvement Conference, August 1971. p. 35-46. USDA Forest Service,  Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.
    79. Jeffers, Richard M., and Raymond A. Jensen. 1980. Twenty-year  results of the Lake States jack pine seed source study. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper NC-181. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  St. Paul, MN. 20 p.
    81. Jeffers, R. M., and H. Nienstaedt. 1972. Precocious flowering and  height growth of jack pine full-sib families. In Proceedings,  IUFRO Meeting of the Working Party on Progeny Testing, Macon, GA. p.  19-33.
    83. Kabzems, A., and G. L. Kirby. 1956. The growth and yield of jack  pine in Saskatchewan. Forestry Branch Technical Bulletin 2. Saskatchewan  Department of Natural Resources, Regina. 66 p.
    85. Kabzems, A., A. L. Kosowan, and W. C. Harris. 1976. Mixed-wood  section in ecological perspective, Saskatchewan. Forestry Branch  Technical Bulletin 8. Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources,  Regina. 118 p.
    87. Kang, Hyun. 1980. Designing a tree breeding system. In Proceedings,  Seventh Meeting Canadian Tree Improvement Association, Part 2, August  1979, Gander, Newfoundland. P. 51-66. Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa,  ON.
    89. Krugman, Stanley L., and James L. Jenkinson. 1974. Pinus L.,  Pine. In Seeds of woody plants in the United States. p. 596-638.  C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    91. Laidly, Paul R. 1981. Equations for predicting the growth and yield  of jack pine in the Lake States. Unpublished report. USDA Forest  Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 15 p. 
    93. Le Blanc H., and J. Conway. 1974. Importance du pin gris au Quebec,  Chapter 1. In Amelioration du pin gris au Quebec par le comité  de recherche en génétique forestiere, Rap. 2. Conseil  Recherche du Dévelopement Forestiers, Ministère des Terres  et Forêts, Quebec. p. 5-22.
    95. Logan, K. T. 1966. Growth of tree seedlings as affected by light  intensity. II. Red pine, white pine, jack pine, and eastern larch.  Canadian Forestry Service Publication 1160. Canadian Department of  Forestry, Ottawa, ON. 19 p.
    97. Loomis, Robert M. 1977. Jack pine and aspen floors in northeastern  Minnesota. USDA Forest Service, Research Note NC-222. North Central  Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN. 3 p.
    99. Lotan, James E. 1967. Early performance of Pinus contorta x  banksiana hybrids. USDA Forest Service, Research Note INT-57.  Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 8 p.
    101. MacLean, D, A., and R. W. Wein. 1976. Biomass of jack pine and mixed  hardwood stands in northeastern New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 6:441-447.
    103. Mayfield, H. F. 1953. A census of the Kirtland's warbler. Auk  70:17-20.
    105. O'Loughlin, Tim C. 1973. Cone characteristics and seed yield in a  jack pine breeding orchard. Thesis (M.S.), University of Missouri,  School of Forestry, Columbia. 54 p.
    107. Plonski, W. L. 1960. Normal yield tables for black spruce, jack  pine, aspen, white birch, tolerant hardwoods, white pine, and red pine  for Ontario. Silvical Series Bulletin 2. Ontario Department of Lands and  Forests, Ottawa, ON. 39 p.
    109. Polk, R. Brooks. 1974. Heritabilities of some first-order branching  traits in Pinus banksiana Lamb. In Proceedings, Eighth  Central States Tree Improvement Conference, October 1972, Columbia,  Missouri. p. 33-39. University of Missouri, School of Forestry,  Fisheries, and Wildlife, Columbia.
    111. Pollack, J. C. 1979. Monoterpene analysis of the jack pine-lodgepole  pine complex in Alberta. Thesis (M.S.), University of Alberta, Edmonton.  (Reported by B. P. Dancik, In Proceedings, Seventeenth Meeting  Canadian Tree Improvement Association, Part 1, August 1979, Gander,  Newfoundland. p. 202.)
    113. Rauf, Aunu, R. A. Cecich, and D. W. Benjamin. 1981. Life table  evaluation of conelet and cone mortality for jack pine, Pinus  banksiana Lamb. in Wisconsin. In Proceedings, Second North  Central Tree Improvement Conference, August 1981, Lincoln, Nebraska. p.  166-175. University of Wisconsin, Madison,
    115. Rehfeldt, G. E., and J. E. Lotan. 1970. Pinus contorta x  banksiana hybrids tested in northern Rocky Mountains. USDA Forest  Service, Research Note INT-126. Intermountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 7 p.
    117. Righter, F. I., and Palmer Stockwell. 1949. The fertile species  hybrid, Pinus murraybanksiana. Madroño 10:65-69.
    119. Riley, L. F. 1980. The effect of seeding rate and seedbed  availability on jack pine stocking and density in northeastern Ontario.  Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report O-X-318. Great Lakes  Forest Research Center, Sault Ste. Marie, ON. 36 p. + app.
    121. Rudolf, Paul 0. 1965. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.).  In Silvics of forest trees of the United States. p. 338-354. H.  A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 2  7 1. Washington, DC.
    123. Rudolph, Thomas D. 1961. Lammas growth and prolepsis in jack pine in  the Lake States. Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Minnesota, School of  Forestry, St. Paul. 320 p.
    125. Rudolph, Thomas D. 1964. Lammas growth and prolepsis in jack pine in  the Lake States. Forest Science Monograph 6. Society of American  Foresters, Washington, DC. 70 p.
    127. Rudolph, Thomas D. 1966. Segregation for chlorophyll deficiencies  and other phenodeviants in the X1 and X2  generations on irradiated jack pine. In Joint Proceedings,  Second Genetics Workshop, Society of American Foresters and Seventh Lake  States Forest Tree Improvement Conference. p. 18-23. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper NC-6. North Central Forest Experiment Station,  St. Paul, MN.
    129. Rudolph, Thomas D. 1966. Stimulation of earlier flowering and seed  production in jack pine seedlings through greenhouse and nursery  culture. In Joint Proceedings, Second Genetic Workshop, Society of  American Foresters and Seventh Lake States Forest Tree Improvement  Conference. p. 80-83. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper NC-6. North  Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.
    131. Rudolph, Thomas D. 1976. Cone set, seed yield, seed quality, and  early seedling development Of S2 generation jack pine. In  Proceedings, Tenth Central States Forest Tree Improvement  Conference, September 1976, West Lafayette, Indiana. p. 42-60.  University of Wisconsin, Madison.
    133. Rudolph, Thomas D. 1979. Seed production in the first eight years and  frequency of natural selfing in a simulated jack pine seedling seed  orchard. In Proceedings, Thirteenth Lake States Forest Tree  Improvement Conference, August 1977, St. Paul, Minnesota. p. 33-47.  North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, MN.
    135. Rudolph, T. D. 1979. Female strobili on 12-month-old jack pine. Tree  Planters' Notes 30:24-26.
    137. Rudolph, Thomas D., and Robert A. Cecich. 1979. Provenance and  plantation location variation in jack pine seed yield and quality. In  Proceedings, First North Central Tree Improvement Conference, August  1979, Madison, Wisconsin. p. 10-20. University of Wisconsin, Madison. 
    139. Rudolph, T. D., and Hans Nienstaedt. 1962. Polygenic inheritance of  resistance to winter injury in jack pine-lodgepole pine hybrids. Journal  of Forestry 60:138-139.
    141. Rudolph, T. D., and Hans Nienstaedt. 1964. Rooting, shoot  development, and flowering of jack pine needle fascicles. Silvae  Genetica 13:118-123.
    143. Rudolph, T. D., and C. W. Yeatman. 1982. Genetics of jack pine. USDA  Forest Service, Research Paper WO-38. Washington, DC. 60 p.
    145. Schlaegel, Bryce E. 1975. Yields of four 40-year-old conifers and  aspen in adjacent stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 5:278-280. 
    147. Schoenike, Roland E. 1976. Geographic variation in jack pine.  University of Minnesota Agriculture Experiment Station, Technical  Bulletin 304. St. Paul, MN. 49 p.
    149. Scotter, George W. 1974. Distribution of pine (Pinus spp.) in  the south Nahanni and Flat Rivers Region, Northwest Territories.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 4:555-557.
    151. Sittman, K., and H. Tyson. 1971. Estimates of inbreeding in Pinus  banksiana. Canadian Journal of Botany 49:1241- 1245.
    153. Skilling, D. D. 1981. Personal communication.
    155. Tappenier, J. C., and A. A. Alm. 1972. Effect of hazel on the  nutrient composition of annual litter and forest floor in jack pine and  red pine stands. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes 235. University of  Minnesota, St. Paul. 4 p.
    157. Teich, A. H. 1970. Cone serotiny and inbreeding in natural  populations of Pinus banksiana and Pinus contorta. Canadian  Journal of Botany 48:1805-1809.
    159. Teich, A. H., and M. J. Holst. 1969. Breeding for height growth of  Pinus banksiana Lamb. In Proceedings, Second World  Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding. vol. 1, p. 129-138. Society of  American Foresters, Washington, DC.
    161. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1975. Soil  taxonomy: a basic soil classification for making and interpreting soil  surveys. Soil Survey Staff, coords. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 436. Washington, DC. 754 p.
    163. Wilds, S. A., J. G. Iyer, C. Tanzer, and others. 1965. Growth of  Wisconsin coniferous plantations in relation to soils. University of  Wisconsin, Research Bulletin 262. Madison. 81 p.
    165. Wilson, Louis F. 1977. A guide to insect injury of conifers in the  Lake States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 501.  Washington, DC. 218 p.
    167. Yeatman, C. W. 1974. The jack pine genetics program at Petawawa  Forest Experiment Station, 1950-1970. Canadian Forestry Service,  Publication 1331. Ottawa, ON. 30 p.
    169. Yeatman, Christopher W. 1975. A progeny test of Ottawa Valley jack  pine-six year results. In Proceedings, Ninth Central States  Forest Tree Improvement Conference, October 1974, Ames, Iowa. p. 71-84.  USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper  Darby, PA.
    171. Yeatman, C. W. 1976. Seed origin-first, last and always. Environment  Canada, Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report PS-X-64. Petawawa  Forest Experiment Station, Ottawa, ON. 12 p.
    173. Yeatman, C. W., and M. J. Holst. 1972. Hardiness of jack pine hybrids  and provenances in the boreal forest. Forestry Chronicle 48:30-31.
    175. Zavarin, Eugene, William B. Critchfield, and Karel Snajberk. 1969.  Turpentine composition of Pinus contorta x Pinus banksiana hybrids  and hybrid derivatives. Canadian Journal of Botany 47:1443-1453.
    177. Zavitkovski, J., R. M. Jeffers, H. Nienstaedt, and T. F. Strong.  1981. Biomass production of several jack pine provenances at three Lake  States locations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 11:441-447.
    179. Zsuffa, L. 1974. Rooting of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)  cuttings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 4:557-561.


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