The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Atlantic Journal 1(3): 119. 1832. (Atlantic J.)
  • Carrière. 1855. In: Traité Gén. Conif.: 260.
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Hitchcock, C. H., A.J. Cronquist, F. M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. Vascular Cryptogams, Gymnosperms, and Monocotyledons. 1: 1–914. In C. L. Hitchcock Vasc. Pl. Pacif. N.W. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carriere
  • Quine CP; Humphrey JW; Ferris R. 1999. Should the wind disturbance patterns observed in natural forests be mimicked in planted forests in the British uplands?. Forestry. 72(4): 337-358.
  • Traité Général des Conifères 260. 1855. (Traité Gén. Conif.)
  • Welsh, S. L. 1974. Anderson's Fl. Alaska Adj. Parts Canada i–xvi, 1–724. Brigham Young University Press, Provo.
    1. Arno, Stephen F. 1967. Interpreting the timberline: an aid to help  park naturalists to acquaint visitors with the subalpine-alpine ecotone  of western North America. U.S. Department of the Interior National Park  Service, Western Regional Office, San Francisco, CA. 206 p.
    3. Cordes, Lawrence D. 1972. An ecological study of the Sitka spruce  forest on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Thesis (Ph.D.), University  of British Columbia, Vancouver. 452 p.
    5. Coutts, M. P. 1983. Development of the structural root system of  Sitka spruce. Forestry 56MA-16.
    7. Daubenmire, R. 1968. Some geographic variations in Picea  sitchensis and their ecologic interpretation. Canadian Journal of  Botany 46(6):787-798.
    9. Day, W. R. 1957. Sitka spruce in British Columbia: a study in forest  relationships. Great Britain Forestry Commission, Bulletin 28. London.  110 p.
    11. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    13. Farr, Wilbur A. 1984. Site index and height growth curves for  managed even-aged stands of western hemlock and Sitka spruce in  southeast Alaska. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-326, Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 26 p.
    15. Farr, Wilbur A., and A. S. Harris. 1979. Site index of Sitka spruce  along the Pacific coast related to latitude and temperatures. Forest  Science 25(l):145-153.
    17. Forrest, G. 1. 1980. Geographic variation in the monoterpene  composition of Sitka spruce cortical oleoresin. Canadian Journal of  Forest Research 10:458-463.
    19. Fowler, D. P. 1982. The hybrid black x Sitka. spruce, implications to  phylogeny of the genus Picea. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 13:108-115.
    21. Franklin, J. F., and C. T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural vegetation of  Oregon and Washington. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  PNW-8. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland,  OR. 417 p.
    23. Fraser, A. T., and J. B. H. Gardiner. 1967. Rooting and stability in  Sitka spruce. Great Britain Forest Commission, Bulletin 40. London. 28  p.
    25. Furniss, R. L., and V. M. Carolin. 1977. Western forest insects. U.S.  Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1339. Washington,  DC. 654 p.
    27. Griggs, R. F. 1934. The edge of the forest in Alaska and the reason  for its position. Ecology 15(2):80-96.
    29. Harris, A. S. 1978. Distribution, genetics, and silvical  characteristics of Sitka spruce. In International Union of  Forest Research Organizations Joint Meeting Working Parties, vol. 1. p.  95-122. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.
    31. Harris, A. S., and Robert H. Ruth. 1970. Sitka spruce: a bibliography  with abstracts. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper PNW-105. Pacific  Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 251 p.
    33. Hartman, Kay. 1982. National register of big trees. American Forests  88 (407-31, 34-48.
    35. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    37. Krajina, V. J. 1969. Ecology of forest trees in British Columbia.  In Ecology of western North America. vol. 1. p. 1-146. V. J.  Krajina, ed. University of British Columbia Department of Botany,  Vancouver, BC.
    39. Laing, E. V. 1932. Studies on tree roots. Great Britain Forestry  Commission Bulletin 13, H.M.S.O. London.
    41. Meyer, Walter H. 1937. Yield of even-aged stands of Sitka spruce and  western hemlock. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 544.  Washington, DC. 86 p.
    43. Overhulser, D. L., R. 1. Gara, and B. J. Hrutfiord. 1974. Site and  host factors as related to the attack of tile Sitka spruce weevil.  University of Washington Center for Ecosystem Studies, College of Forest  Resources, 1974 Annual Report. Seattle. 52 p.
    45. Packee, Edmond C. 1974. The biogeoclimatic subzones of Vancouver  Island and the adjacent mainland and islands. Forest Research Note 1.  MacMillan Bloedel, Limited, Nanaimo, BC. 24 p.
    47. Ruth, Robert H. 1965. Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.)  Carr.). In Silvics of forest trees of the United States. p.  311-317. H. A. Fowells, comp. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 271. Washington, DC.
    49. Ruth, Robert H., and A. S. Harris. 1979. Management of western  hemlock-Sitka spruce forests for timber production. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report PNW-88. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 197 p.
    51. Safford, L. 0. 1974. Picea A. Dietr. Spruce. In Seeds  of woody plants in the United States. p. 587-597. C. S. Schopmeyer,  tech. coord. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450.  Washington, DC.
    53. Sakai, A., and C. J. Weiser. 1973. Freezing resistance of trees in  North America with reference to tree regions. Ecology 54(l):118-126.
    55. Samuel, C. J. A., R. C. B. Johnstone, and A. M. Fletcher. 1972. A  diallel cross in Sitka spruce assessment of first year characters in an  early glasshouse test. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 42(2):53-61.
    57. Shaw, C. G. 111, and R. Molina. 1980. Formation of ectomycorrhizae  following inoculation of containerized Sitka spruce seedlings. USDA  Forest Service, Research Note PNW-351. Pacific Northwest Forest and  Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 8 p.
    59. Taylor, R. F. 1934. Yield of second-growth western hemlock-Sitka  spruce stands in southeastern Alaska. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Technical Bulletin 412. Washington, DC. 30 p.
    61. Tompsett, P. B., A. M. Fletcher, and Gillian M. Arnold. 1980.  Promotion of cone and seed production on Sitka spruce by gibberellin  application. Annals of Applied Biology 94:421-429.
    63. Viereck, Leslie A., and C. T. Dyrness. 1980. A preliminary  classification system for vegetation of Alaska. USDA Forest Service,  General Technical Report PNW-106. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range  Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 38 p.
    65. Wright, Jonathan W. 1955. Species crossability in spruce in relation  to distribution and taxonomy. Forest Science 10019-349.


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