The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Berry, P., J. Bullock. 1962. The Food of the Common Malayan Toad, Bufo melanostictus Schneider. Copeia, 1962/4: 736-741.
  • Church, G. (1960). ''The invasion of Bali by Bufo melanostictus.'' Herpetologica, 16(1), 15-21.
  • Church, G. 1960. The Invasion of Bali by Bufo melanostictus. Herpetologica, 16/1: 15-21.
  • Frost, Darrel R. 2009. database. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference v5.3
  • Harper, B., B. Luukinen, J. Gervais, K. Buhl, D. Stone. 2009. "Diazinon Technical Fact Sheet" (On-line pdf). National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University Extension Services. Accessed April 11, 2012 at
  • Keomany, S., M. Mayxay, P. Souvannasing, C. Vilayhong, B. Stuart, L. Srour, P. Newton. 2007. Toad Poisoning in Laos. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 77/5: 850–853.
  • Khan, M. 2000. "Duttaphrynus melanostictus" (On-line). AmphibiaWeb. Accessed February 17, 2012 at
  • Khan, M.S. (1982). ''Collection, preservation and identification of amphibian eggs from the plains of Pakistan.'' Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 14, 241-243.
  • Khan, M.S. (1991). Morphoanatomical specialization of the buccopharyngeal region of the anuran larvae and its bearing on the mode of larval feeding. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Khan, M.S. and M. Koo, 28 February 2016. Duttaphrynus melanostictus. Amphibia Web. The Regents of the University of California. Retrieved May 3 2016 from
  • Kolby J.E. 2014 Ecology: stop Madagascar's toad invasion now. Nature 509, 563. (doi:10.1038/509563a)
  • Lever, C. 2003. Naturalized Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Mercy, M. 1999. "Studies on some aspects of the Biology and Ecology of the Common Indian Toad Bufo melanostictus Schneider (Class Amphibia; Order Anura)" (On-line). Mahatma Gandhi University Online Theses Library.
  • Mertens, R. (1969). ''Die Amphibien und Reptilien West-Pakistans.'' Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 197, 1-96.
  • Mogali, S., S. Saidapur, B. Shanbhag. 2011. Levels of Predation Modulate Antipredator Defense Behavior and Metamorphic Traits in the Toad Bufo melanostictus. Journal of Herpetology, 45/4: 428-431.
  • Natarajan, R. (1953). ''A note on the chromosomes of Cacopus systoma.'' Proceedings of the 40th Indian Science Congress, Part 3, 180-181.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Rowley J et al. 2010. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians. Biol. Lett. 6, 336–338. (doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0793)
  • Saidapur, S., S. Girish. 2001. Growth and Metamorphosis of Bufo melanostictus Tadpoles: Effects of Kinship and Density. Journal of Herpetology, 35/2: 249- 254.
  • Sumandasa, D., M. Wijesinghe, W. Ratnasooriya. 2007. Effects of diazinon on larvae of the Asian Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus Schneider 1799). Environmental Toxicology, 27.11: 2320-2325.
  • The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation. Pest Risk Assessment: Asian spined toad (Bufo melanostictus). PR10_5469. Queensland, Australia: The State of Queensland. 2010. Accessed March 02, 2012 at
  • Wogan, G.O.U., B.L. Stuart, D.T. Iskandar and J.A. McGuire, 2016. Deep genetic structure and ecological divergence in a widespread human commensal toad. Biology Letters 12 (Art. 20150807): 1–5.
  • Wogan, Guinevere O. U., Stuart, Bryan L., Iskandar, Djoko T., and McGuire, Jimmy A. (2015). ''Deep genetic structure and ecological divergence in a widespread human commensal toad.'' Biology Letters, 12(1).
  • van Dijk, P., D. Iskandar, M. Lau, G. Huiqing, G. Baorong, L. Kuangyang, C. Wenhao, Y. Zhigang, B. Chan, S. Dutta, R. Inger, K. Manamendra-Arachchi, M. Khan. 2011. "Duttaphrynus melanostictus" (On-line). ICUN Red List. Accessed March 02, 2012 at
  • van Dijk, P.P., D. Iskandar, M.W. Neng Lau, G. Huiqing, G. Baorong, L. Kuangyang, C. Wenhao, Y. Zhigang, B. Chan, S. Dutta, R. Inger, K. Manamendra-Arachchi, M. Sharif Khan. 2004. Duttaphrynus melanostictus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T54707A11188511. Downloaded on 04 May 2016.


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