The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1998. website, Mammal Species of the World
  • Best, T. 1995. Mammalian Species, 508. New York: American Society of Mammalogists.
  • Best, T. L. 1995. Spermophilus annulatus. Mammalian Species 508:1-4.
  • Black, C. 1972. Holarctic evolution and dispersal of squirrels. Evolutionary Biology, 6: 205-322.
  • Hall, E. 1981. The Mammals of North America. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Helgen, K. M., F. R. Cole, L. E. Helgen, and D. E. Wilson. 2009. Generic revision in the Holarctic ground squirrel genus Spermophilus. Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 90, no. 2. 270-305
  • Murie, J., G. Michener. 1984. The Biology of Ground-Dwelling Squirrels. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Nowak, R. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Prakash, L., P. Gosh . 1975. Rodents in Desert Environments. The Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk b.v. Publishers.
  • Smith, F. A., S. K. Lyons, S. K. M. Ernest, K. E. Jones, D. M. Kaufman, T. Dayan, P. Marquet, J. H. Brown, and J. P. Haskell. 2003. Body size of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84:3403.
  • Thorington, Richard W., Jr., John L. Koprowski, Michael A. Steele, and James F. Whatton. 2012. Squirrels of the World. vii + 459
  • Wilson, D., D. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Wilson, D., S. Ruff. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1992. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing
  • Wilson, Don E., and F. Russell Cole. 2000. Common Names of Mammals of the World


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