Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Size: small to medium. Plumage: black with a white line from eyebrow encircling ear coverts; underparts white; black line encirdling body from upper breast down sides of body to feet. Bare parts: pink skin around lores and eyes; feet and bill blackish.
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 13 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 7 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 0.060 - 9.650
  Nitrate (umol/L): 8.380 - 26.041
  Salinity (PPS): 32.635 - 33.891
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.231 - 7.787
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.263 - 1.689
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.322 - 23.798

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 0.060 - 9.650

Nitrate (umol/L): 8.380 - 26.041

Salinity (PPS): 32.635 - 33.891

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.231 - 7.787

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.263 - 1.689

Silicate (umol/l): 4.322 - 23.798
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:115
Specimens with Sequences:112
Specimens with Barcodes:108
Species:4
Species With Barcodes:4
Public Records:108
Public Species:4
Public BINs:1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Banded penguin

The banded penguins are the penguins of the Spheniscus genus. There are four living species of penguins known as banded penguins, and all have similar coloration. They are sometimes also known as "jack-ass penguins" due to their loud locator calls sounding similar to a donkey braying. Common traits include a band of black that runs around their bodies bordering their black dorsal coloring, black beaks with a small vertical white band, distinct spots on their bellies, and a small patch of unfeathered or thinly feathered skin around their eyes that can be either white or pink. All members of this genus lay their eggs and raise their young in burrows.[1]

Systematics[edit]

The banded penguins belong to the genus Spheniscus, which was established by Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760.[2] The word Spheniscus is the diminutive of sphẽn or sphẽnos, meaning "wedge"; this is a reference to the penguin's thin, wedge-shaped flippers.[3]

Ranges[edit]

The African, Humboldt, and Magellanic species all live in more temperate climates such as South Africa and the southern coasts of Chile and Argentina while the Galápagos penguin is native to the Galapagos Islands, making it the most northerly of all penguin species. The banded penguins are not (and apparently never were[citation needed]) Antarctic.

Species[edit]

Extant[edit]

The four extant species of banded penguins (Spheniscus) are:

ImageCommon nameBinomial name
Megallanic penguinMagellanic penguinSpheniscus magellanicus
Humboldt penguinHumboldt penguinSpheniscus humboldti
Galápagos penguinGalápagos penguinSpheniscus mendiculus
African penguinAfrican penguin, black-footed or jackass penguinSpheniscus demersus

Fossil[edit]

Fossil Spheniscus sp.

Several extinct species are known from prehistoric fossils:

The former Spheniscus predemersus is now placed in a monotypic genus Inguza.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ellis, Richard (2004). No Turning Back: The Life and Death of Animal Species. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 69. ISBN 0-06-055804-0. 
  2. ^ "ITIS Report: Spheniscus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 11 August 2014. 
  3. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London, UK: Christopher Helm. p. 361. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4. 
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