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The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (March 2003) External link.
  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2. Sterry, P. (1997) Collins Complete British Wildlife Photoguide. Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., London.
  • 2005. manuscript, Checklist of Apoidea of North America.. - 18-Nov-2005
  • 2006. database, Apoidea Database, Fauna Europaea
  • 2007. database, Checklist for Apoidea, Australian Faunal Directory
  • 2008. manuscript, World Bee Checklist Project - update 2008-09
  • 3. Buczacki, S. (2002) Fauna Britannica. Hamlyn, London.
  • 4. O'Toole, C. (2002) The New Encyclopedia of Insects and Their Allies. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 5. Von Frisch, K. (1966) The dancing bees: an account of the life and senses of the honey bee. Methuen & Co Ltd., London.
  • 6. Beekeeping and Apis Biodiversity in Europe (BABE). The European Commission (March 2003) External link.
  • Abreu, R., S. Moraes, O. Malaspina. 2000. Histological aspects and protein content of Apis mellifera L. worker venom glands: the effect of electrical shocks in summer and winter. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins, 6/1: 87-98.
  • Adjare, S. 1990. Beekeeping in Africa. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Accessed November 06, 2008 at
  • Alaux C; Ducloz F; Crauser D; Le Conte Y. 2010. Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence. Biology Letters.
  • Amdam, G., K. Nilsen, K. Norberg, M. Fondrk, K. Hartfelder. 2007. Variation in endocrine signaling underlies variation in social life history. The American Naturalist, 170/1: 37-46.
  • Apis mellifera Linnaeus
  • Black R. 2010. Bee decline linked to falling biodiversity. BBC News [Internet],
  • Breed, M., L. Butler, T. Stiller. 1985. Kin discrimination by worker honey bees in genetically mixed groups. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 82/9: 3058-3061.
  • Clarke, K., T. Rinderer, P. Franck, Q. Javier, B. Oldroyd. 2002. The africanization of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) of the Yucatan: a study of a massive hybridization event across time. Evolution, 56/7: 1462-1474.
  • Evangelista C; Kraft P; Dacke M; Reinhard J; Srinivasan MV. 2010. The moment before touchdown: landing manoeuvres of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Journal of Experimental Biology. 213: 262-270.
  • Gonzalez, A., C. Rowe, P. Weeks, D. Whittle, F. Gilbert, C. Barnard. 1995. Flower choice by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.): sex-phase of flowers and preferences among nectar and pollen foragers. Oecologia, 101/2: 258-264.
  • Haddad et al. (2007) Extended longevity of queen honey bees compared to workers is associated with peroxidation-resistant membranes. Exp Gerontol, 42:601-609.
  • Helen Phillips. 2005. The aerodynamic tricks that keep bees airborne. New Scientist. 188(2528):
  • Hemmer, W., M. Focke, D. Kolarich, I. Wilson, F. Altmann, S. Wöhrl, M. Götz, R. Jarisch. 2001. Antibody binding to venom carbohydrates is a frequent cause for double positivity to honeybee and yellow jacket venom in patients with stinging-insect allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 108/6: 1045-1052.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Hsu C-Y; Ko F-Y; Li C-W; Fann K; Lue J-T. 2007. Magnetoreception system in honeybees Apis mellifera. PLoS ONE. 2(4): e395.
  • Jones, J. C.; Myerscough, M. R.; Graham, S.; Oldroyd, B. P. 2004. Honey Bee Nest Thermoregulation: Diversity Promotes Stability. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 402-404 p.
  • Kang, S., C. Pak, H. Choi. 2002. The effect of whole bee venom on arthritis. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 30/1: 73-80.
  • LIPPS, B. 2002. Sub-lethal injection of honeybee venom decreased the levels of endogenously present substance in organs of mice. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins, 8/2: 255-268.
  • Miller, Peter. 2007. The Genius of Swarms. National Geographic [Internet],
  • Milne, M., L. Milne. 2000. National Audubon Society: Field Guide To Insects and Spiders. New York, Canada: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
  • Morse, R. 1978. Honey bee pests, predators, and diseases. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press.
  • Nicholson SW. 2009. Water homeostasis in bees, with the emphasis on sociality. Journal of Experimental Biology. 212: 429-434.
  • Percival, M. 1947. Pollen collection by Apis mellifera . New Phytologist, 46/1: 142-173.
  • Pinto, A., W. Rubink, R. Coulson, J. Patton, S. Johnston. 2004. Temporal pattern of africanization in a feral honeybee population from texas inferred from mitochondrial DNA. Evolution, 58/5: 1047-1055.
  • Pirk, CWW; Hepburn, HR; Radloff, SE; Tautz. 2004. Honeybee combs: construction through a liquid equilibrium process?. Naturwissenschaften. 91: 350-353.
  • Reinhard, J., M. Srinivasan, S. Zhang. 2004. Scent-triggered navigation in honeybees. Nature, 427: 411.
  • Roat, T., C. Landim. 2008. Temporal and morphological differences in post-embryonic differentiation of the mushroom bodies in the brain of workers, queens and drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Micron, 39: 1171-1178.
  • Roubik, D. 1989. Ecology and natural history of tropical bees. New York City, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ruggiero M. (project leader), Ascher J. et al. (2015). ITIS Bees: World Bee Checklist (version Sep 2009). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Sammataro, D., A. Avitabile. 1998. The Beekeeper's Handbook, 3rd edition. Ithaca, New York, USA: Comstock Publishing Associates.
  • Sandoz, C., M. Hammer, R. Menzel. 2002. Side specificity of olfactory learning in the honeybee: US input side. Learning and Memory, 9: 337-348.
  • Seeley, T., R. Seeley, P. Akratanakul. 1982. Colony defense strategies of the honeybees in Thailand. Ecological Monographs, 52/1: 43-63.
  • Shemesh, Y., M. Cohen, G. Bloch. 2007. Natural plasticity in circadian rhythms is mediated by reorganization in molecular clockwork in honeybees. The FASEB Journal, 21: 2304-2311.
  • Sherman, G., K. Visscher. 2002. Honeybee colonies achieve fitness through dancing. Nature, 419: 920-922.
  • Shuker, KPN. 2001. The Hidden Powers of Animals: Uncovering the Secrets of Nature. London: Marshall Editions Ltd. 240 p.
  • Sohn E. 2009. Bees always have a safe landing. Discovery News [Internet],
  • Southwick, E., G. Heldmaier. 1987. Temperature control in honeybee colonies. BioScience, 37/6: 395-399.
  • Tarpy, D., R. Page Jr.. 2000. No behavior control over mating frequency in queen honeybees (Apis mellifera L.): implications for the evolution of extreme polyandry. The American Naturalist, 155/6: 820-827.
  • Winston, M., J. Dropkin, O. Taylor. 1981. Demography and life history characteristics of two honey bee races (Apis mellifera). Oecologia, 48: 407-413.


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