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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species breeds on Tasmania and off the coast of south Australia, with the bulk of the population in the south-east. It undergoes transequatorial migration, wintering north of Japan near the Aleutian Islands (USA), with some moving north of the Bering Strait. The return migration route incorporates the central Pacific, with some moving down the western coast of North America.

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations, but breeds in a single nation

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Transient

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Transient

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Global Range: Breeds on islands off coast (and locally along mainland coast) of southern Australia, with largest numbers around Tasmania and islands of the Bass Strait (see map in Austin et al. 1994). Ranges at sea in southern Australian and New Zealand waters, and north through Pacific Ocean to Bering and Chukchi seas (some to Beaufort Sea), south along west coast of North America to Baja California (Los Coronados Islands).

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Range

S Australia and Tasmania; winters to n Pacific.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 36 cm

Weight: 543 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

breeding on Australia and New Zealand
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Breeding occurs mainly on coastal islands, typically in areas of grassland or other vegetation, but sometimes cliffs or bare ground (del Hoyo et al. 1992). It conducts a bimodal feeding strategy whilst breeding, alternating short foraging trips to local waters with long foraging trips (up to 17 days) to the Polar Frontal Zone. Short trips allow greater chick provisioning at the sacrifice of body condition, which is then recovered in richer sub-Antarctic waters. Diet includes fish (particularly mycotphids), crustaceans and squid (Weimerskirch and Cherel 1998). Feeding occurs in flocks of up to 20,000 birds, and it has been seen associated with cetaceans. It is a trans-equatorial migrant, wintering off Aleutian Islands, some moving north of Bering Strait (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 169 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 74 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 1.821 - 28.903
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.037 - 26.250
  Salinity (PPS): 32.403 - 34.924
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.556 - 7.657
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.263 - 1.751
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.436 - 19.677

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 1.821 - 28.903

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.037 - 26.250

Salinity (PPS): 32.403 - 34.924

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.556 - 7.657

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.263 - 1.751

Silicate (umol/l): 1.436 - 19.677
 
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Comments: Nonbreeding: pelagic. Nests in burrows usually on small islands, also on mainland headlands in some areas. Strongly philopatric (Austin et al. 1994).

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Depth range based on 169 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 74 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 1.821 - 28.903
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.037 - 26.250
  Salinity (PPS): 32.403 - 34.924
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.556 - 7.657
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.263 - 1.751
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.436 - 19.677

Graphical representation

Temperature range (°C): 1.821 - 28.903

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.037 - 26.250

Salinity (PPS): 32.403 - 34.924

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.556 - 7.657

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.263 - 1.751

Silicate (umol/l): 1.436 - 19.677
 
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Seen along British Columbia, U.S. west coast, and in central Pacific during southward migration in late northern summer through winter (National Geographic Society 1983, Cogswell 1977, Pratt et al. 1987). Some nonbreeders remain off California during northern winter (National Geographic Society 1983).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats fishes taken from surface or by diving (Terres 1980).

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Population Biology

Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total population is about 23 million breeding birds (Skira et al. 1985).

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General Ecology

Nonbreeding: may form flocks of at least 10,000s.

Despite strong philopatry, colony founding and recovery from population reductions evidently occur via immigration of a large number of individuals (Austin et al. 1994).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Breeding Category

Visitor
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Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 30 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Egg laying occurs in November. Clutch size is 1. Incubation lasts 52-55 days. Tends to retain same mate in successive years. See Wooler et al. (1990). Some islands have colonies of several hundred thousand pairs (Austin et al. 1994).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Puffinus tenuirostris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTATACCTAATTTTCGGCGCATGAGCCGGTATAGTCGGAACCGCCCTCAGCCTACTTATCCGCGCAGAACTTGGTCAACCAGGGACACTCCTGGGAGATGACCAAATCTACAATGTAATTGTTACCGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTCATAGTAATACCCGTCATAATTGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGATTAGTTCCCCTCATAATCGGTGCACCCGACATAGCATTCCCACGTATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTATTACCCCCATCCTTCCTCCTCCTACTAGCCTCCTCTACAGTAGAAGCAGGAGCAGGCACAGGATGGACTGTGTACCCTCCTCTAGCTGGTAACCTTGCTCATGCCGGAGCCTCAGTCGATCTGGCTATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTAGCAGGTGTATCTTCTATCCTAGGGGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACCGCTATCAACATAAAACCCCCGGCTCTATCACAATATCAAACCCCTCTGTTCGTATGATCCGTACTCATTACTGCCGTCCTACTCCTACTCTCTCTTCCAGTCCTCGCAGCGGGAATCACTATACTATTAACAGATCGAAACCTAAATACTACATTCTTTGACCCAGCTGGTGGAGGAGATCCAGTCCTATACCAACACCTTTTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTCNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Puffinus tenuirostris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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