Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

This species tends to occur in small groups (2), which feed during the day and night, but are most active at dawn and dusk (4). This duck feeds on invertebrates and plant matter whilst wading, sifting through the water with the bill (6). Pair formation and breeding occurs during the wet season (from December to March) (6). Nesting occurs in cavities in tree trunks, particularly in black mangrove trees (6). Pairs are monogamous and very territorial, defending their nesting site aggressively against intruders. About six eggs are laid, which hatch after around four weeks. After a further six weeks the chicks will have developed adult plumage and will begin to fly (6).
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Description

The Endangered Madagascar teal is a small, fairly delicate looking duck (4). The two sexes are very similar in appearance and the entire plumage is a uniform light reddish-brown. The throat and chin are buff coloured and the bill is pinkish-grey (6). The wing has a black patch known as the speculum or mirror, which is bordered with white (6).
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Distribution

Range Description

Anas bernieri is endemic to western Madagascar. Its range encompasses a narrow coastal strip along the whole of the west coast and the extreme north-east (Langrand 1995; F. Razafindrajao per R. Safford in litt. 1999; ZICOMA 1999; H.G. Young in litt. 2007). It is known to breed at many sites in Menabe and Melaky on the central west coast, and at Ankazomborona on the far north-west coast (Razafindrajao et al. 2001): 100-500 were estimated to be present between Antsalova and Morondava in July-August 1993 (Morris and Hawkins 1998)and a flock of 67 was seen near Tambohoranoin 1998 (Anon. 1998c); and a new breeding population of 200-300 individuals was discovered at Ankazomborona, north of Mahajanga and some 720 km north of the Masoarivo breeding site. The population in Baie de la Mahajamba was estimated to be 150-200 birds in November-December 2003 (Joiner et al. 2006). The total population is estimated at 1,500-2,500 individuals (G. Young in litt. 2002 to Wetlands International 2002).

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Range

Lowlands of w Madagascar (population ±20 birds 1993).
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Range

As the English name suggests, this duck is endemic to Madagascar, where it is restricted to a narrow strip along the west coast and far northeast of the island (2). The very small population is fragmented and declining (2).
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Ecology

Habitat

Madagascar Mangroves Habitat

The endangered Malagasy sacred ibis (Threskiornis bernieri), is found in the Madagascar mangroves ecoregion as well as certain other western coastal Madagascar habitat and the Seychelles. These Madagascar mangroves shelter highly diverse mollusk and crustacean communities, while capturing sediment that threatens coral reefs and seagrass beds. Although up to nine mangrove tree species have been recorded, most of the Madagascar mangrove stands contain six species in four families: Rhizophoracae (Rhizopora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Ceriops tagal), Avicenniaceae (Avicennia marina), Sonneratiaceae (Sonneratia alba) and Combretaceae (Lumnitzera racemosa).

Some ot the other notable avian associates of the Madagascar mangroves are: the Madagascar Heron (Ardea humbloti, VU), Madagascar Teal (Anas bernieri, EN), Madagascar plover (Charadrius thoracicus, VU), and Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides, CR). The Malagasy kingfisher (Alcedo vintsioides) is also thought to occur in these mangroves. This habitat is important for migratory bird species, such as Common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), Crab plover (Dromas ardeola), Gray plover (Charadrius squatarola), African spoonbill (Platalea alba) and Great White Egret (Egretta alba).

A number of mammalian taxa are found in the ecoregion, chiefly lemurs, tenrecs and bats. The sole terrestrial apex mammalian predator of the ecoregion is the Malagasy civet (Fossa fossana), a Madagascar endemic.

Tenrecs occurring in the ecoregion are: Large-eared tenrec (Geogale aurita), the tiniest extant tenrec; Greater hedgehog tenrec found in the Madagascar mangroves, an insectivorous mammal; Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi); and Tailless tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus). Each of these tenrecs is endemic to Madagascar, save for the Tailless tenrec, which is also found on Comoros and a few other islands in the region.

Primates found in the Madagascar consist of several lemur species: the Endangered Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), endemic to western and southwestern Madagascar; the Vulnerable Black lemur (Eulemur macaco); the Vulnerable Red-fronted lemur (Eulemur rufus); the Vulnerable Sambirano Bamboo Lemur (Hapalemur occidentalis); the Endangered Coquerel's Mouse-lemur (Microcebus coquereli), a Madagascar endemic; the Vulnerable Decken's sifaka (Propithecus deckenii), a western Madagascar endemic; Sambirano Woolly Lemur (Avahi unicolor), a northwestern Madagascar endemic; Pale-forked crown lemur (Phaner pallescens), endemic to western Madagascar; Fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius); and Grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).

Bats occurring here are the Near Threatened Malagasy rousette (Rousettus madagascariensis), a cave rooster capable of navigating the airspace of rather dense intact forest; Vulnerable Madagascan fruit bat (Eidolon dupreanum); Near Threatened Commerson's roundleaf bat (Hipposideros commersonii); Near threatened long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersi); Rufous trident bat (Triaenops rufus); Malagasy giant mastiff bat (Otomops madagascariensis), a Madagascar endemic; Malagasy White-bellied Free-tailed Bat (Mops leucostigma), endemic to Madagascar and the Comoros islands of Anjouan and Moheli; Malagasy slit-faced bat (Nycteris madagascariensis), a narrow endemic to the Irodo River Valley in northern Madagascar; Mauritian tomb bat (Taphozous mauritianus); Trouessart's trident bat (Triaenops furculus), endemic to Madagascar and the outer Seychelles atolls; Manavi Long-fingered Bat (Miniopterus manavi), endemic to Madagascar and Comoros; Grandidier's Free-tailed Bat (Chaerephon leucogaster); Robust yellow bat (Scotophilus robustus); Malagasy mouse-eared bat (Suncus madagascariensis); and Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka). Flying foxes found in the ecoregion are: Madagascan flying fox (Pteropus rufus), an important seed disperser who mates whilst hanging upside down.

Other mammals found in the ecoregion are the Madagascan pygmy shrew (Suncus madagascariensis); The only Rodentia member in the ecoregion is the Dormouse tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus myoxinus).

There are a limited number of reptilian taxa found in the Madagascar mangroves: Snake-eyed skink (Cryptoblepharus boutonii); and aquatic apex predator Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Some sea turtles, primarily green turtle (Chelonia mydas, EN) and Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, CR), nest along the western coast within the Madagascar mangroves. The declining species Dugong (Dugong dugong, VU) is also found in the mangroves.

There is only one amphibian species present in the Madagascar mangroves: Mascarene ridged frog (Ptychadena mascareniensis).

There is particularly high diversity among the fish populations in the Madagascar mangroves,the families of which include: Mugelidae, Serranidae, Carangidae, Gerridae, Hemiramphidae, Plectrorhynchidae and Elopidae. The neighboring coral reefs that are associated with the mangroves have also been noted for extremely high fish diversity.

  • C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2015. Madagascar mangroves. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
  • Hughes, R.H. & Hughes, J.S. 1992. A Directory of African Wetlands. UUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya/WCMC, Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 2880329493
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Behaviour Birds breed during the wet season months of December to March (Joiner et al. 2006; Kear 2005b), and moult at the beginning of the dry season when they become flightless for a period (Young 2006; Razafindrajao 2000). They then move short distances to coastal areas in search of suitable habitat for the dry season (Kear 2005b). During the breeding season the species occurs in solitary, dispersed pairs, but during the non-breeding season it is more gregarious and occurs in groups of up to 40 individuals (Scott and Rose 1996). Pair-bonds may last through consecutive seasons and investment by males is high and involves the protection of the female and young (Young 2006). Habitat Breeding The species breeds only in seasonally flooded, non-tidal areas dominated by Black Mangrove Avicennia marina, on the landward side of littoral forest (Joiner et al. 2006; Young 2006; H.G. Young in litt. 2007; Razafindrajao 2000). Non-breeding During its post-breeding moult, during which time it is flightless (Young 2006), the species seeks out lakes that are rich in aquatic vegetation, and in the subsequent dry season it is found in coastal wetland areas of shallow water and nutrient-rich mud, including saline and brackish areas (Kear 2005b; Razafindrajao 2000). Here it prefers open rather than vegetated wetlands (Young 2006) and is most often found in coastal mangrove forest, bays, estuaries and shallow saline wetlands just inland of mangroves (tannes), though it can also be found less frequently in marshes, dense deciduous forest, areas of open water and herbaceous savannah, especially where Hyparrhenia and Heteropogon grasses are present (Joiner et al. 2006). Diet Little is know about its diet except during moulting when it feeds on terrestrial and aquatic insects including Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera, in addition to the seeds of various plant families and the leaves and stems of monocotyledons (Kear 2005b). It usually feeds by dabbling in the mud while wading (Morris and Hawkins 1998; Young 1995). Breeding Site Nesting takes place in holes in Avicennia marina mangrove trees (Joiner et al. 2006; Kear 2005b) that have been created by storm damage or decay (Joiner et al. 2006). Ducklings fledge at 45-49 days (Young 2006).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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Madagascar teals occur in wetland habitats. Habitat use changes with the season; in the dry season they are found mainly in shallow open bodies of water where there is little or no vegetation, but they also occur on sand bars in rivers, at the edges of mangrove forests and in estuaries. During the wet season when they nest, they prefer flooded mangrove forests (6).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
C2a(ii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Lewis, R., Rabenandrasana, M., Razafindrajao, F., Safford, R. & Young, G.

Justification
This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small population, in one subpopulation, that is undergoing a rapid and continuing decline owing to habitat loss and hunting.


History
  • 2012
    Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Threatened (T)