IUCN threat status:

Critically Endangered (CR)


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Range Description

This species is endemic to three islands in the Sulu archipelago in the Philippines. Described as common to abundant in the late 19th century, it has undergone a drastic decline, and persists with certainty only on Tawi-tawi. Recent evidence suggests that its population is extremely low, perhaps numbering fewer than 20 pairs in the main mountain range. During a visit in February and June 2009, four individuals were reported in contiguous areas over two days on Tawi-tawi (I. Sarenas in litt. 2010). An estimated 250-300 km2 of forest remained on Tawi-tawi in 2001, although much of this included selectively logged forest (Mallari et al. 2001), and further declines have been noted since. Fortunately, the rate of clearance for oil palm plantations is lower than was feared previously. The species is thought to be extinct on Jolo (Sulu), but this requires confirmation. It is almost certainly extinct on Sanga-sanga. Local reports from 1995 suggested that it may visit the small islands of Tandubatu, Dundangan and Baliungan, though these hold very little primary forest (D. Allen in litt. 2012) and are unlikely to sustain resident populations.


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© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN


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