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Overview

Distribution

Range

Breeds n Eurasia; winters to n Africa, s India and SE Asia.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Behaviour This species is fully migratory, although isolated breeding populations east and south of the Black Sea may be resident or only undertake local movements (Snow and Perrins 1998). It usually migrates on a narrow front, utilising two major migration routes (south-west, and south to south-east passages across Europe) and uses regular staging areas (Snow and Perrins 1998). Family groups and non-breeding birds begin to migrate in July, but the majority of the species migrate in early September, arriving in African wintering grounds during October. The species returns to its breeding areas in March (Vegvari 2002), where breeding begins in late April or early May, occasionally up to three weeks earlier in southern areas (Snow and Perrins 1998). It is gregarious for much of the year, migrating in flocks of between 10-50 to 400 birds (Africa) and congregating in groups of few to 1,000 birds in the non-breeding season (Cramp and Simmons 1980, Urban et al. 1986), exceptionally it gathers in flocks of up to 4,000 during the moulting period (Cramp and Simmons 1980). Whilst breeding, pairs are solitary with large nesting territories, although immature and unmated birds may remain in groups of 6-10 individuals (Cramp and Simmons 1980). Every two years adults undergo a complete moulting period, after breeding but before leaving for wintering grounds, throughout which they are flightless for around six weeks (Urban et al. 1986). This species is diurnal, feeding during the day and roosting during the night on the ground or in water in large numbers (the same roost is often used every night, and sometimes every year) (Cramp and Simmons 1980, Urban et al. 1986). Habitat Breeding During the breeding season this species utilises a wide variety of shallow wetlands, including high altitude, treeless moors or bogs (where the main vegetation is Sphagnum moss or Ericaceae) usually with some standing water, and swampy forest clearings, reedy marshes and rice paddies (Cramp and Simmons 1980). The species requires inaccessible ground nesting-sites, so is commonly associated with quaking bogs and other impassible mires, especially in the vicinity of Alnus carr woodland or seasonally flooded riverine forest (Cramp and Simmons 1980). In Central Asia the species may use drier forested areas (such as pine or mixed birch/pine woodland) if water is readily available (Cramp and Simmons 1980), but it generally avoids heavily wooded areas (Urban et al. 1986). The species moults in its breeding habitat after breeding, specifically requiring shallow waters or high reed cover for concealment during this vulnerable flightless period (Cramp and Simmons 1980). Non-breeding The non-breeding wintering and migration habitats of the species include floodland, swampy meadows, shallow sheltered bays, rice paddies (Cramp and Simmons 1980), pastures and savannah-like areas (such as open holm oak woodlands in the Iberian Peninsula) (Meine and Archibald 1996). The species may also be found roosting on mudflats or sandbanks along rivers, lakes and reservoirs during this season (Urban et al. 1986, Meine and Archibald 1996) and undertake flights of up to 20 km (Cramp and Simmons 1980) to forage in agricultural fields (Meine and Archibald 1996, Vegvari 2002) (due to human encroachment and destruction of its preferred habitats) (Cramp and Simmons 1980). Diet The species is omnivorous in both breeding and non-breeding seasons, the plant component of its diet consisting of grass roots and shoots, rhizomes, tubers (e.g. potatoes), the leaves of crops and wild herbs (e.g. brassicas, clover, nettle, chickweed), pondweed, the berries of Empetrum and Vaccinium, cereal grain (e.g. wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, rice), peas, olives, acorns, cedarnuts, groundnuts Arachis, and the pods of Cajanus (Cramp and Simmons 1980, Urban et al. 1986). Animal matter in this species' diet includes adult (beetles, flies) and larval (Lepidoptera) insects, snails, earthworms, millipedes, spiders, woodlice, frogs, slow-worms, lizards, snakes, small mammals (rodents and shrews), fish and occasionally the eggs and young of small birds (Cramp and Simmons 1980, Urban et al. 1986). Breeding site The nest is a mound of wetland vegetation (which may be re-used from year to year), generally placed in or near water in inaccessible undisturbed bog, heath, marsh, mire (Cramp and Simmons 1980, Urban et al. 1986), or sedge meadow (Malik and Prange 1995). Management information The removal of willow bushes, reeds and bog grass from areas in the Kremmener Luch nature reserve, central Germany, has been successful in providing suitable roosting sites with wide panoramic views which have attracted the species to the area (Malik and Prange 1995). The vegetation was removed during the winter months: willow bushes being cut off and poisoned with arboricid, bog grass being burnt down and reeds being mechanically cut (Malik and Prange 1995). Other management efforts in western Europe include the burial or relocation of utility lines, and programs to encourage the planting of lure crops and the use of waste grain for diversionary feeding (away from agricultural crops) (Meine and Archibald 1996).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
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© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 2 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 2 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 43 years (wild)
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© Joao Pedro de Magalhaes

Source: AnAge

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Grus grus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AATCGATGATTATTTTCAACTAACCACAAAGATATCGGAACCCTTTACCTAATCTTCGGCGCATGAGCCGGCATAATTGGCACTGCTCTT---AGCCTATTAATCCGCGCAGAACTTGGCCAACCAGGAAGCCTCTTAGGAGAT---GACCAAATCTATAATGTAATCGTCACCGCCCACGCCTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTCATAGTTATGCCCATCATGATTGGAGGGTTCGGAAATTGATTAGTCCCACTTATA---ATTGGTGCCCCCGACATAGCATTCCCACGCATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCTCCATCCTTCCTACTACTACTTGCCTCCTCCACAGTAGAAGCAGGAGCAGGTACAGGATGAACAGTCTACCCCCCACTAGCTGGTAACCTAGCCCACGCCGGAGCTTCAGTAGACCTA---GCCATCTTCTCTCTTCACCTAGCAGGTGTATCTTCCATCCTGGGGGCAATCAATTTCATCACAACAGCCATCAACATAAAACCACCAGCCCTATCACAATACCAAACACCCTTATTCGTGTGATCCGTCCTAATTACCGCTGTCCTATTACTCCTCTCTCTCCCAGTCCTTGCCGCT---GGCATCACCATACTACTAACAGACCGAAATCTCAATACTACATTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCTGTCCTATATCAACATCTCTTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTTTACATCCTAATCCTCCCAGGTTTTGGAATCATCTCACACGTAGTAACCTACTACGCAGGTAAAAAA---GAACCATTTGGTTATATAGGAATAGTATGAGCCATACTATCTATTGGATTCCTAGGCTTCATCGTATGAGCCCACCACATATTCACAGTAGGAATAGACGTAGATACCCGAGCATACTTCACATCCGCTACCATAATCATTGCTATCCCAACTGGCATCAAAGTCTTTAGCTGATTA---GCTACGCTACACGGAG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Grus grus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2015

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • 2012
    Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

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