The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2011. Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2011.02.08
  • 2011. IOC World Bird List, Master List v2.9
  • Adriaens, P. (2015). Aptenodytes forsteri Gray, 1844. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Araya BM & G Millie. 1991. Guía de campo de las aves de Chile. 4ta ed. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago. 405 p.
  • BirdLife International 2012. Aptenodytes forsteri
  • Deguine, Jean-Claude. 1974. Emperor Penguin: Bird of the Antarctic. The Stephen Greene Press, Vermont.
  • Gain, L. 1912. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Penguins of the Antarctic Region. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 475-483.
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. ix + 259
  • IUCN (2009). Species and Climate Change: More than just the Polar Bear.
  • Kooyman, G. L. and T. G. Kooyman. 1995. Diving behavior of emperor penguins nurturing chicks at Coulman Island, Antarctica. Condor 97:536-549.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Rivolier, Jean. 1956. Emperor Penguins. Elek Books, London.
  • Tony Williams (1995) The Penguins. Oxford University Press.
  • Williams, T. 1995. The Penguins. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.


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