The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, NODC Taxonomic Code
  • 2011. IOC World Bird List, Master List v2.9
  • 2011. Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2011.02.08
  • Araya BM & G Millie. 1991. Guía de campo de las aves de Chile. 4ta ed. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago. 405 p.
  • Attenborough, David. 1979. Life on Earth. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. 319 p.
  • BirdLife International 2012. Aptenodytes forsteri
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from
  • Deguine, Jean-Claude. 1974. Emperor Penguin: Bird of the Antarctic. The Stephen Greene Press, Vermont.
  • Dresp, B; Jouventin, P; Langley, K. 2005. Ultraviolet reflecting photonic microstructures in the King Penguin beak. Biology Letters. 1(3): 310-313.
  • Gain, L. 1912. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Penguins of the Antarctic Region. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 475-483.
  • Gilbert C; Robertson G; Le Maho Y; Naito Y; Ancel A. 2006. Huddling behavior in emperor penguins: dynamics of huddling. Physiology & Behavior. 88(4-5): 479-488.
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. ix + 259
  • IUCN (2009). Species and Climate Change: More than just the Polar Bear.
  • Kooyman, G. L. and T. G. Kooyman. 1995. Diving behavior of emperor penguins nurturing chicks at Coulman Island, Antarctica. Condor 97:536-549.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Mar 2015). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Rivolier, Jean. 1956. Emperor Penguins. Elek Books, London.
  • Tony Williams (1995) The Penguins. Oxford University Press.
  • Williams, T. 1995. The Penguins. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
  • Zitterbart DP; Wienecke B; Butler JP; Fabry B. 2011. Coordinated movements prevent jamming in an emperor penguin huddle. PLoS ONE [Internet],


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