Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Cittura cyanotis is restricted to Sulawesi, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). Its distribution is apparently fragmented, with no records from south Sulawesi, but is moderately common in almost all forested areas in north Sulawesi (Fry and Fry 1999, J. Riley in litt. 2013) and also present near Luwuk in east Sulawesi, near Masamba in south-central Sulawesi, and on the south-east peninsula (Fry and Fry 1999). Common in Tangkoko-Batuangus Reserve (Fry and Fry 1999).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits primary and tall secondary lowland forest and drier hill forest up to 1,000 m, but seems to be predominantly restricted to primary forest (del Hoyo et al. 2001, Riley 2002).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Riley, J.

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

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Population

Population
The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it is considered uncommon to relatively common. More research is required.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Miettinen et al. (2011) estimate the rate of forest loss on Sulawesi to be 10.8% between 2000 and 2010, driven primarily by agricultural expansion and logging for timber.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct ecological studies to identify its habitat requirements and response to habitat degradation. Repeat surveys throughout the range in order to assess population trends. Protect areas of suitable habitat.

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Wikipedia

Lilac kingfisher

The lilac kingfisher or Celebes flat-billed kingfisher (Cittura cyanotis) is a resident breeding bird in the lowlands of the Indonesia island of Sulawesi and the neighbouring Sangihe and Talaud Islands. It is the only member of the genus Cittura.

Description[edit]

Cittura cyanotis cyanotis at Bintauna

The lilac kingfisher is 28 cm (11 inches) long. It has the typical kingfisher shape, with a short tail and long bill. The adult male of the nominate race, C. c. cyanotis, has a brown crown and back and rufous rump and tail. It has a blue eye mask, separated from the crown by a white line, and a pale lilac ruff of long stiffened ear covert feathers. The underparts are white and the wings are blue, separated by a white line from the brown back. The red bill is large and flattened. In flight, the underwings are white with a black wrist patch.

The female has a black, rather than blue, mask and upperwing coverts, and her supercilium is black, spotted with white. The juvenile resembles the adult, but is duller and browner with a grey-brown bill.

There are two or three subspecies;

  • C. c. cyanotis, northern Sulawesi
  • C. c. modesta, eastern and southeastern Sulawesi. This form, which is not recognised by some authorities, has less stiff ear coverts than nominate cyanotis. These feathers are lilac in the male and rufous in the female. The throat is rufous-lilac in both sexes.
  • C. c. sanghirensis, Sangihe and Talaud islands. This subspecies is substantially larger and longer-billed than the nominate race. It has brighter, more rufous upperparts, a black forehead and mask, stiff, bright lilac ear coverts and upper breast, and a white chin.

The call of this large tree kingfisher is a rapid ku-ku-ku-ku.

The lilac kingfisher is unlikely to be confused with any other kingfishers in its range.

Behaviour[edit]

The lilac kingfisher is found in lowland rainforest and drier hill forest up to 1000 m altitude.

It perches motionless on a low branch watching for its prey, mainly large insects, on the ground below. Little else is known of the behaviour of this species, and no nests have been found.

Status[edit]

This species has a restricted range and fragmented distribution, and is uncommon, with no records from south Sulawesi. Lowland deforestation has been extensive in recent decades, and the loss of its habitat has led to lilac kingfisher being classed as near-threatened.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

References[edit]

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