Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Actenoides princeps (including A. p. erythrorhamphus) inhabits central and south-western Sulawesi, Indonesia (Fry and Fry 1999, del Hoyo et al. 2001). Likely to be under-recorded due to its inconspicuous habits (Fry and Fry 1999).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Found in the interior of undisturbed montane forest, perching in the understorey and is an inconspicuous bird (Fry and Fry 1999). Recorded as low as 250 m, though most frequently encountered between 900 and 2,000 m (White and Bruce 1986, Fry and Fry 1999).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
It is suspected that the population of this newly-split kingfisher will undergo moderately rapid declines as habitat loss and degradation increases in its hill and montane forest habitat. It is therefore classified as Near Threatened.
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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is reported to be uncommon (del Hoyo et al. 2001).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Forest destruction on Sulawesi has been extensive in recent decades; Miettinen et al. (2011) estimate the rate of forest loss on Sulawesi to be 10.8% between 2000 and 2010, however, the rate of forest loss in the lowlands and foothills is likely to be higher than the overall rate. Losses are being driven by clearance for transmigration settlements, agricultural and infrastructural development and large-scale logging. Most primary forest below 1,000 m (mostly lower than the elevational range of this species) has been reduced to remnant patches, supplanted by secondary, disturbed and commercially utilised forest, and such losses are likely to now be extending higher into hill and montane forest.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation and research actions underway
No targeted actions are known. Presumably occurs in several protected areas.

Conservation and research actions proposed

Conduct repeated surveys of known and potential sites across Sulawesi in order to determine abundance and population trends. Conduct ecological studies to determine levels of tolerance of secondary habitats, particularly in areas where primary forests have been extirpated. Ensure the protection of existing forest reserves.
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Wikipedia

Scaly-breasted kingfisher

The scaly-breasted kingfisher, or regent kingfisher, (Actenoides princeps) is a species of bird in the family Alcedinidae. It is endemic to central and southwestern Sulawesi in Indonesia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Description[edit]

The adult scaly-breasted kingfisher measures about 24 cm (9 in) in length. It has a blue head and reddish-brown collar, and the female has a buff-coloured forehead. The back is dark brown scalloped with buff. The underparts are plain whitish-buff in the male and are barred with darker colour in the female. Birds in the northeast of the range have horn-coloured bills, northwestern birds have red bills and southern birds have orange and brown bills. There are also some differences between the subspecies in the detail of the plumage. The only bird with which this species might be confused is the green-backed kingfisher (Actenoides monachus), also present in Sulawesi, but that species is usually found at lower altitudes and has a dark green back and reddish-brown underparts.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The scaly-breasted kingfisher is endemic to the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. There are two subspecies all found in moist montane forests, A. p. princeps from the northeast of the island and A. p. erythrorhamphus from the northwest and central parts. A. p. regalis is found in the southeast, but is now regarded as its own species, the plain-backed kingfisher.[3] In the Minahassa Peninsula of northern Sulawesi, the nominate subspecies is found in the Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve in primary forest at elevations of between 1,050 and 1,550 metres (3,440 and 5,090 ft) above sea level.[4] Its habitat is the dense understorey of undisturbed primary forest.[2]

Behaviour[edit]

The call of the scaly-breasted kingfisher, a series of mournful whistles, is more likely to be heard around dawn than later in the day. It perches on a branch in the forest and periodically makes short flights with its wings creating a whirring noise. It feeds on beetles and other small invertebrates.[2] One female was observed to eat a lizard.[4] It is believed to nest in holes in earth banks.[2]

Status[edit]

The scaly-breasted kingfisher has a somewhat restricted range in Indonesia and its population size is believed to be decreasing due to habitat loss, and is considered to be 'near threatened' by the IUCN.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2014). "Actenoides princeps". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d Fry, C. Hilary; Fry, Kathie (2010). Kingfishers, Bee-eaters and Rollers. AC Black. pp. 107–108. ISBN 9781408134573. 
  3. ^ "Scaly Kingfisher (Actenoides princeps) (Reichenbach, 1851)". AviBase. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  4. ^ a b Riley, Jon; Mole, Jorys (2001). "The birds of Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia". Forktail 17: 57–66. 
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