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Range DescriptionGubernatrix cristata was formerly widespread and common throughout much of Argentina and Uruguay, with a few records from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as a non-breeder. In Argentina, it is now rare except very locally in San Luis, Buenos Aires, La Pampa and Río Negro, and especially between General Conesa, San Antonio Oeste and Viedma. There are further important populations in Pay Urbe and Estancia San Antonio, Corrientes; the Montiel area, Ceibas and Estancia la Choza, Entre Ríos, and Chancaní, Córdoba (Chebez et al. 1998). There are pre-1975 records from Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Santa Fe and San Juan, and it has been listed without details for Formosa, Chaco, La Rioja and, mistakenly, Misiones (Chebez 1996). In Uruguay, it was historically known from 13 departments, but recently from only Paysandú, Río Negro, Florida and Rocha (A. B. Azpiroz in litt. 1999, G. Rocha in litt. 1999). In 1999, the Uruguayan population was estimated at fewer than 300 mature individuals, mostly concentrated in the río Uruguay basin (A. B. Azpiroz in litt. 1999), while any populations in southern Brazil are probably now extinct (C. Martins-Ferreira in litt. 2007). Two specimens collected from Paraguay in 1905 probably refer to escaped cagebirds (Hayes 1995). The total global population was estimated at 1,500-3,000 individuals in 2007 (C. Martins-Ferreira in litt. 2007).