Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: RESIDENT: southeastern California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, northwestern and central Arizona, central New Mexico and western Texas south to northeastern Baja California, central Sonora and central Chihuahua, south locally to central Mexico (AOU 1983).

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 29 cm

Weight: 63 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Desert scrub, mesquite, tall riparian brush and, locally, chaparral (AOU 1983). Usually beneath dense cover. BREEDING: Nests in low tree or shrub, usually in a fork, 0.8-2.5 m above ground (Terres 1980).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Little information available. Known to eat insects, berries, and sometimes small lizards (Terres 1980).

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 4.8 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Clutch size 2-4 (usually 3). Incubation 14 days, by both sexes (Terres 1980). Nestlings altricial. Young tended by both adults, leave nest 11-12 days after hatching.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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