IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)

Distribution

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Troupials are New World orioles found in northern and central South America. There are three subspecies occupying distinct ranges.

Icterus icterus icterus inhabits the Llanos region in northeastern Colombia and the area between the coast and Amazonas and from Carabobo to Sucre in Venezuela.

Icterus icterus metae is found in the province of Arauca in northwestern Columbia as well as in the Venezuelan state of Apure near the Meta river, after which the subspecies was named.

Icterus icterus ridgwayi inhabits a range from the northeastern tip of Colombia to northwestern Venezuela, and between the coast and Falcón and Lara. Icterus icterus ridgwayi is also found on the islands of Aruba, Curaçao, and Isla Margarita. They have been introduced to the islands of Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, and Bonaire.

While the earlier literature regards troupials as a species or superspecies, with six subspecies, a more recent publication by James Clements, (Supplement to "Birds of the World: A Checklist") states that troupials are a complex of three species with several races each. The three species are: Venezuelan troupials, Icterus icterus, with subspecies I. i. ridgwayi, I. i. icterus, and I. i. metae, Campo troupials, Icterus jamaicaii (previously I. i. jamaicaii), and orange-backed troupials, Icterus croconotus (previously I. i. croconotus), with subspecies I. c. croconotus and I. c. strictifrons. These conclusions are based on recent phylogenetic work by Jaramillo et al. (1999) and Omland et. al. (1999).

Biogeographic Regions: neotropical (Native )

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