IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)


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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) RESIDENT: from eastern Panama south through most of South America to central Chile and central Argentina; during 1900s range expanded though Lesser and Greater Antilles, reaching Puerto Rico in 1955 and Hispaniola in 1970s (AOU 1998, Post and Wiley 1977). Established on Barbados (probably an introduction) and Grenada (AOU 1998). Has reached Cuba, Curacao, and the Bahamas (Derbot and Prins 1992, Carib. J. Sci. 28:104-105; Baltz 1995). Spreading with deforestation along rivers in Amazonia (Ridgely and Tudor 1989). Expansion in range has accompanied large-scale habitat alterations (deforestation) associated with agriculture and animal husbandry (Post and Wiley 1977, Cavalcanti and Pimentel 1988). Now established in southern Florida and occurring rarely to western Florida and southern Georgia, and casually west to central Texas and Oklahoma and north to North Carolina; accidental in Maine (AOU 1998).


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