Overview

Brief Summary

The loud, clear songs of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) are a familiar part of the suburban soundscape across the eastern United States. The Northern Cardinal is abundant throughout the eastern United States and adjacent Canada, with a range extending south to Belize. This species has also been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands, where it is well established on all the main islands from Kauai eastward, and has been established locally in coastal southern California and in Bermuda. These striking birds inhabit woodland edges, swamps, streamside thickets, and suburban gardens, as well as the Sonoran Desert and riparian areas of the Southwest. In the East, the Northern Cardinal has expanded its range northward during the past century. Northern Cardinals are permanent residents throughout their range. The Northern Cardinal has been selected as the state bird of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia.



The diet of the Northern Cardinals is highly varied, but consists mainly of seeds, insects, and berries. The young are fed mostly insects.

The male sings to defend his nesting territory and actively attacks intruders. In courtship, both male and female raise their heads high and sway back and forth while singing softly. Early in the breeding season, the male often feeds the female. The female sings mainly in the spring before nesting. The nest, which is an open cup built by the female, is typically hidden in dense vegetation 1 to 3 m above the ground, sometimes higher. The 3 to 4 (sometimes 2 or 5) eggs (whitish to pale bluish or greenish white marked with brown, purple, and gray) are incubated for 12 to 13 days, almost always by the female alone. Both parents feed the young, which leave the nest around 9 to 11 days after hatching. The male may continue to feed the fledglings as the female initiates a second brood. There may be two to three broods per year (rarely four).

(Kaufman 1996; AOU 1998; Dunn and Alderfer 2011)

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Distribution

Northern cardinals are native to the Nearctic region. They are found throughout eastern and central North America from southern Canada into parts of Mexico and Central America. They have also been introduced to California, Hawaii and Bermuda. Cardinals have expanded their range considerably since the early 1800’s by taking advantage of moderate temperatures, human habitation and supplemental food available at bird feeders.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native ); oceanic islands (Introduced )

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Global Range: Resident from central Baja California, southeastern California east to southern New Mexico, southeastern South Dakota across the northern U.S. and southern Canada to Nova Scotia, south to southern Baja California, Belize, Gulf Coast, and southern Florida. Range gradually has expanded northward in recent decades. Introduced in Hawaii (all main islands), southwestern California.

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Geographic Range

Northern cardinals are found throughout eastern and central North America from southern Canada into parts of Mexico and Central America. These birds live as far north as Maine or Nova Scotia, Canada down south through Florida and the Gulf Coast. They range as far west as South Dakota, Nebraska and Texas. They have also been introduced to California, Hawaii and Bermuda. Northern cardinals do not migrate so they live in the same place year-round.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

  • Halkin, S., S. Linville. 1999. Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Pp. 1-32 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 440. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America.
  • Sibley, D. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
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Physical Description

Morphology

Northern cardinals are medium-sized songbirds. Males are bright red except for a black mask on their face. Females are light brown or light greenish-brown, with reddish highlights and do not have a black mask (but parts of their face may be dark). Both males and females have thick, orange-red, cone-shaped bills, a long tail, and a distinctive crest of feathers on the top of their heads. Males are slightly larger than females. Males are 22.2 to 23.5 cm long whereas females are 20.9 to 21.6 cm long. The average weight of adult cardinals is 42 to 48 g. Immature cardinals are similar in appearance to females, but have a gray-black rather than orange-red bill.

There are 18 subspecies of Cardinalis cardinalis. The majority of these subspecies are distinguished based on the color of the face-mask in females.

Range mass: 42 to 48 g.

Range length: 20.9 to 23.5 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry ; polymorphic

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; sexes colored or patterned differently; male more colorful

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.5163 W.

  • Kielb, M., J. Swales, R. Wolinski. 1992. The Birds of Washtenaw County, Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
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Physical Description

Northern cardinals are medium-sized songbirds. Both males and females have thick, bright orange, cone-shaped beaks. They also have a long tail and a pointed crest of feathers on the top of their heads. Males are bright red all over except for a large, black mask on their face. The mask covers their eyes, goes around their beaks, and covers their throats so that it looks like a black bib. Females are light brown with a reddish crest, wings, and tails. Females have a very small, black mask and bib. Males are slightly larger than females. Young cardinals look similar to females, but they have a gray-black bill and have less red coloration.

Northern cardinals measure 20.9 to 23.5 cm long and weigh 42 to 48 g. Their wingspans measure 30.5 cm from tip to tip.

Range mass: 42 to 48 g.

Range length: 20.9 to 23.5 cm.

Average wingspan: 30.5 cm.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry ; polymorphic

Sexual Dimorphism: male larger; sexes colored or patterned differently; male more colorful

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.5163 W.

  • Kielb, M., J. Swales, R. Wolinski. 1992. The Birds of Washtenaw County, Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.
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Size

Length: 22 cm

Weight: 45 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Northern cardinals have a preference for the edges of woods, hedgerows, and vegetation around houses. This may be partially responsible for the increase in their population since the early 1800's. Cardinals also benefit from the large numbers of humans who feed them and other seed-eating birds with backyard bird feeders. Cardinals prefer to build their nests in dense thickets.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest ; mountains

Other Habitat Features: suburban ; agricultural

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Comments: Thickets, brushy areas, fields, shrubbery, forest edge, clearings, around human habitation, and, in arid regions, in scrub, riparian thickets, woodland, and brush; typically avoids dense forest (but penetrates native forest in Hawaii).

Nests in dense shrubs, small deciduous or coniferous tree, thicket, vine, briar tangle, mesquite, generally 3 m or less above ground. Female builds a new nest in a different location on the territory for each nesting attempt (Filliater et al. 1994).

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Northern cardinals live in several habitats including the edges of woods, swamps, riverside thickets, city gardens and residential areas. They are often seen at backyard bird feeders. Northern cardinals often build nests on the branches of dense bushes and shrubs.

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

Other Habitat Features: suburban ; agricultural ; riparian

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Although they do not migrate, cardinals can live anywhere from Canada, the east and middle of the United States, and many parts of Mexico. They typically live in small trees, bushes, marshes, grasslands, fields and gardens (Halkin et al., 1999). They will also choose brush, thickets and vines as long as their nests are sufficiently covered (Ehrhart and Conner 1986).  The height of the nest is not very important, when females were selecting the nesting area, and could range anywhere from 0.2032 m. to 7.3152 m.   (Dow 1968), (Filliater et al. 1994). This means that the choice for nesting area is more dependent upon the vegetation and the coverage that it provides than the height off the ground. The cardinals choose their habitats because they need to be inaccessible by predators and will only move their nests if there is a threat presented to them (Filliater et al. 1994). As they do not have many other forms of protection, cardinals use their nests and surrounding cover as their primary line of defense.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

About 90% of northern cardinals' diet consists of weed seeds, grains, insects, fruits, and sunflower seeds. They prefer seeds that are easily husked, but are less selective during winter when food is scarce. According to one observer, a cardinal was seen feeding on a dead black-capped chickadee on a cold snowy day. Northern cardinals also eat some insects and feed their young almost exclusively insects.

Animal Foods: carrion ; insects

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

Primary Diet: herbivore (Frugivore , Granivore )

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Comments: Eats insects, fruits, seeds, grains, buds, flowers; also spiders, snails, slugs. Forages on ground and in trees and shrubs (Terres 1980).

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Food Habits

Most of what northern cardinals eat is weed and sunflower seeds, grains, and fruits. Northern cardinals have large, strong beaks are specialized to crack open seeds. They prefer seeds that are easily husked. They will also eat some insects and feed their young almost exclusively insects. Northern cardinals are less choosy during winter when food is harder to find.

Northern cardinals drink water by scooping it into their bill and tipping their head back. They drink freshwater from streams, ponds, or even birdbaths.

Animal Foods: carrion ; insects

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts; fruit

  • Searles, R. 1989. Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Passenger Pigeon, 51: 236.
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Associations

Because northern cardinals eat large quantities of seeds and fruits, they may act to disperse seeds for some plants. They may also influence the plant community composition through seed eating.

Northern cardinals provide food for their predators. They also sometimes raise the chicks of brown-headed cowbirds that parasitize their nests, helping local brown-headed cowbird populations. Northern cardinals also host many internal and external parasites.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Adult northern cardinals are predated by domestic cats, domestic dogs, Cooper's hawks, loggerhead shrikes, northern shrikes, eastern gray squirrels, long-eared owls and eastern screech-owls. Nestlings and eggs are vulnerable to predation by snakes, birds and small mammals. Egg and nestling predators include milk snakes, black racers, pilot black snakes, blue jays, fox squirrels, red squirrels and eastern chipmunks. Brown-headed cowbirds also remove eggs from the nest, sometimes eating them.

When confronted with a predator near their nest, both male and female northern cardinals will give an alarm call that is a short, chipping note, and fly toward the predator in an attempt to scare them away. They do not aggressively mob predators.

Known Predators:

  • domestic cats (Felis silvestris)
  • domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
  • Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii)
  • loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus)
  • northern shrikes (Lanius excubitor)
  • eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis)
  • long-eared owls (Asio otus)
  • eastern screech owls (Otus asio)
  • milk snakes (Lampropeltis triangulum elapsoides)
  • black racers (Coluber constrictor)
  • pilot black snakes (Pantherophis obsoletus)
  • blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata)
  • fox squirrels (Sciurus niger)
  • red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)
  • eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)
  • brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater)

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Ecosystem Roles

Because northern cardinals eat large quantities of seeds and fruits, they may help disperse seeds for some plants. They may also affect the composition of plant communities because they are seed predators and seed dispersers.

Northern cardinals provide food for their predators. They also sometimes raise the chicks of Molothrus ater that are brood parasites and lay eggs in the nests of other birds. This helps local brown-headed cowbird populations. Northern cardinals also provide habitat for many internal and external parasites.

Ecosystem Impact: disperses seeds

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Predation

Adult northern cardinals are eaten by Felis silvestris, Canis familiaris, Accipiter cooperii, Lanius ludovicianus, Lanius excubitor, Sciurus carolinensis, Asio otus and Otus asio. Nestlings and eggs are eaten by snakes, birds and small mammals. Predators of eggs and nestlings include Lampropeltis doliata, Coluber constrictor, Elaphe obsoleta, Cyanocitta cristata, Sciurus niger, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus and Tamias striatus. Molothrus ater also take cardinal eggs from the nest and sometimes eat them.

When a predator comes near a cardinal nest, both male and female northern cardinals give an alarm call that is a short, chipping note. They also fly toward the predator to try to scare it away. Northern cardinals do not mob predators like other songbirds do. Females incubate the eggs and their brown coloration camouflages them while they sit on the nest so that predators cannot find them in the brush. An incubating bright red male can easily be spotted by predators who are searching for a nest.

Known Predators:

  • Domestic cats (Felis_silvestris)
  • Domestic dogs (Canis_lupus_familiaris)
  • Cooper's hawks (Accipiter_cooperii)
  • Loggerhead shrikes (Lanius_ludovicianus)
  • Northern shrikes (Lanius_excubitor)
  • Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus_carolinensis)
  • Long-eared owls (Asio_otus)
  • Eastern screech owls (Otus_asio)
  • Milk snakes (Lampropeltis_doliata)
  • Black racers (Coluber_constrictor)
  • Pilot black snakes (Elaphe_obsoleta)
  • Blue jays (Cyanocitta_cristata)
  • Fox squirrels (Sciurus_niger)
  • Red squirrels (Tamiasciurus_hudsonicus)
  • Eastern chipmunks (Tamias_striatus)
  • Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus_ater)

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Known predators

Cardinalis cardinalis (backbirds, mockingbird, oriole, cardinal) is prey of:
Lynx rufus
Canis latrans

Based on studies in:
USA: Arizona, Sonora Desert (Desert or dune)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • P. G. Howes, The Giant Cactus Forest and Its World: A Brief Biology of the Giant Cactus Forest of Our American Southwest (Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York; Little, Brown, Boston; 1954), from pp. 222-239, from p. 227.
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Known prey organisms

Cardinalis cardinalis (backbirds, mockingbird, oriole, cardinal) preys on:
seeds of other plants
mistletoe
Orthoptera
Lepidoptera
Gryllidae
cactus weevils
Moneilema
Papilionoidea

Based on studies in:
USA: Arizona, Sonora Desert (Desert or dune)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • P. G. Howes, The Giant Cactus Forest and Its World: A Brief Biology of the Giant Cactus Forest of Our American Southwest (Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York; Little, Brown, Boston; 1954), from pp. 222-239, from p. 227.
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General Ecology

BREEDING: Male breeding-season home ranges varied from 0.5-2.3 hectares (mean 1.2 hectares) in Tennessee to 11.0-23.2 hectares (mean 18.8 hectares) in Ontario (Dow 1969).

Like most birds that have open cup nests, incurs a high rate of nest predation. In Ohio, nesting success rate was only 15% (Filliater et al. 1994).

NON-BREEDING: Winter home ranges in Kentucky averaged 21.2 hectares, although these may have been underestimated because of limited observation time (Ritchison and Omer 1990).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Northern cardinals primarily use vocalizations and physical displays to communicate. Male and female cardinals both sing. Their songs are loud, beautiful whistled phrases. Their songs have been described as sounding like "whoit whoit whoit " and "whacheer whacheer." These songs are used to defend territories and to court mates. Male and female cardinals use "chips" as contact calls and alarms. They also have many visual displays to signal alarm. These include "tail-flicks" and raising and lowering the crest.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Communication and Perception

Northern cardinals use mostly songs and body signals to communicate with each other. Male and female cardinals both sing loud, beautiful whistled phrases. Some songs you may hear sound like "whoit whoit whoit" and "whacheer whacheer." These songs are used to defend territories and to attract mates. Male and female cardinals use "chip" calls to keep contact with their mate and to signal alarm. They may also signal alarm using body signals, such as flicking their tails and raising and lowering the crest of feathers on top of their head.

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

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Life Expectancy

The oldest wild cardinal banded by researchers lived at least 15 years and 9 months. Annual survival rates for adult northern cardinals have been estimated at 60 to 65%.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
28.5 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
189 months.

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Lifespan/Longevity

The oldest wild cardinal banded by researchers lived at least 15 years and 9 months.

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
15.75 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
189 months.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 28.5 years
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Reproduction

Northern cardinals are serially monogamous, though polygyny occasionally occurs. Despite being monogamous, northern cardinals frequently engage in extra-pair copulations. In one study, 9 to 35% of nestlings were the result of extra-pair copulations.  Pair formation begins in early spring, and is initiated with a variety of physical displays. The male performs a variety of displays to attract a female, including courtship feeding. Breeding pairs may remain together year-round, and may breed together for several seasons.

Mating System: monogamous

Northern cardinals breed between March and September. They usually raise two broods a year, one beginning around March and the second in late May to July. The second nest is often parasitized by brown-headed cowbirds. Nests are built by the female in dense tangles of vines or twigs in shrubs and small trees. The female lays 1 to 5 (usually 3) white to greenish eggs that average about one inch in length and one-half inch in diameter. Incubation begins when the last egg is laid, and is performed solely by the female. The male brings food to the incubating female. The eggs hatch after 11 to 13 days of incubation. The female broods the chicks for the first 2 days. Both parents feed the chicks a diet of insects. Both parents also remove fecal sacs from the nest. The chicks begin leaving the nest 7 to 13 (usually 9 to 10) days after hatching. The parents continue to feed the chicks for 25 to 56 days after they fledge from the nest. After leaving or being driven out of their parents' territory, young birds often join flocks of other juveniles. They may begin breeding the next spring.

Breeding interval: Northern cardinals usually raise two broods a year, one beginning around March and the second in late May to July.

Breeding season: Northern cardinals breed between March and September.

Range eggs per season: 1 to 5.

Range time to hatching: 11 to 13 days.

Range fledging age: 7 to 13 days.

Average fledging age: 9.5 days.

Range time to independence: 25 to 56 days.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 to 1 years.

Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 to 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Average eggs per season: 3.

The female northern cardinal builds the nest, incubates the eggs for 11 to 13 days, and broods the altricial chicks for the first 2 days or so. During incubation, the male brings food to the incubating female. Both parents feed the nestlings a diet of insects and remove fecal sacs from the nest. The parents continue to feed the chicks for 25 to 56 days after they fledge from the nest.

Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female)

  • Halkin, S., S. Linville. 1999. Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Pp. 1-32 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 440. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America.
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Summary

The nesting of this common and wide-spread species has been fairly well studied. But don't let that stop you from learning more!

For a video of this species at its nest see: Video1

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Clutch size is 2-5 (usually 3-4). Two to 3, sometimes 4 broods (in south) per year. Incubation 11-13 days, usually by female. Young tended by both parents, leave nest at 9-11 days, independent at 38-45 days. Renests rapidly in response to nest predation (Filliater et al. 1994). Monogamous.

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Northern cardinals are monogamous (one male mates with one female). However, they often choose a different mate each breeding season.

Northern cardinals begin forming breeding pairs in early spring. The male tries to attract a mate by performing courtship displays that show off his crest and his bright red feathers. He will raise his crest and sway side to side while singing softly. Once he finds a female that may be interested, the male feeds the female to show that he would make a good provider for young cardinals.

Mating System: monogamous

Northern cardinals breed between March and September. They usually raise two broods a year, one beginning around March and the second in late May to July. The female builds a cup-shaped nest in dense shrubs and vines. The nest is built with twigs, strips of bark, and grass, and is lined with leaves, grass, or hair. She then lays 3 to 4 white to greenish eggs and will incubate them until they hatch 11 to 13 days later. While the female is incubating the eggs, the male brings food to her. After the chicks have hatched, the female broods them for the first 2 days. Both parents feed insects to the chicks. The chicks leave the nest when they are 9 to 10 days old. The parents continue to feed them for 25 to 56 days when the young become independent and have learned how to feed themselves. Young cardinals often join flocks with other young birds. They may begin breeding the next spring.

Breeding interval: Northern cardinals usually raise two broods a year, one beginning around March and the second in late May to July.

Breeding season: Northern cardinals breed between March and September.

Range eggs per season: 1 to 5.

Range time to hatching: 11 to 13 days.

Range fledging age: 7 to 13 days.

Average fledging age: 9.5 days.

Range time to independence: 25 to 56 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 1 years.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 1 years.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)

Average eggs per season: 3.

The female northern cardinal builds the nest and incubates the eggs. When the chicks hatch they have no feathers or down, so the female broods them to protect them and keep them warm for at least 2 days. Both parents feed the chicks a diet of insects. After the chicks learn to fly and leave the nest, the parents continue to feed them for 25 to 56 days.

Parental Investment: altricial ; male parental care ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female)

  • Halkin, S., S. Linville. 1999. Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). Pp. 1-32 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 440. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America.
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Source: BioKIDS Critter Catalog

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cardinalis cardinalis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 11 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNATGGTAGGTACAGCCCTAAGCCTCCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCTGGAGCTCTTCTAGGAGACGACCAAGTCTACAACGTAGTCGTCACAGCTCATGCTTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTCATAGTTATGCCAATTATAATCGGAGGGTTTGGTAACTGACTAGTTCCCCTAATAATTGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTTTGACTCCTACCTCCATCTTTCCTTCTCCTCCTAGCATCTTCTACAGTCGAAGCGGGTGTCGGCACAGGATGAACAGTATATCCCCCACTTGCTGGCAACTTAGCCCATGCTGGAGCTTCAGTCGACCTTGCTATCTTCTCCTTACACCTAGCTGGTATCTCCTCAATCCTAGGGGCTATCAACTTTATCACAACAGCAATCAATATAAAACCCCCTGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCACTATTCGTCTGATCCGTACTAATCACTGCAGTCCTACTACTCCTATCTCTACCAGTACTAGCTGCAGGAATTACAATGCTCCTTACAGACCGTAACCTCAATACTACATTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCTATTCTATACCAACACCTCTTCTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCAGAAGTTTACATCTTAATCCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cardinalis cardinalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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Source: IUCN

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