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Song sparrows feed mainly on insects and seeds (the latter especially in winter, mainly grass and "weed" seeds). In coastal marshes and on islands, Song Sparrows also feed on small crustaceans and mollusks and perhaps, rarely, even small fish.
Males often defend only a small nesting territory, so high densities may be present in good habitat. In courtship, the male may chase the female and may perform a fluttering flight among the bushes with neck outstretched and head held high.
Nests are typically constructed on the ground under a clump of grass or shrub or less than 1 m above the ground (although they may sometimes be 3 m or higher). The nest, which is constructed mostly or entirely by the female, is an open cup of weeds, grass, leaves, and bark strips lined with fine grass, rootlets, and animal hair. The typical clutch size is 4 eggs, but 3 or 5 eggs are common (rarely 2 or 6). The eggs are pale greenish white and heavily spotted with reddish brown. Incubation (for around 12 to 14 days) is apparently by the female only, although both sexes feed the nestlings. Young typically leave the nest around 10 to 12 days after hatching, but remain with their parents for around 3 weeks more.
In many parts of their range, Song Sparrows are year-round residents, but birds from the northern interior winter in the southern United States or extreme northern Mexico.
(Kaufman 1996; AOU 1998; Dunn and Alderfer 2011)