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Tarsiiformes are a parvorder of primates that once ranged across Asia. Today, tarsiers (family Tarsiidae) are the only living members of the infraorder and are found exclusively on Southeast Asian Islands (Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei). Tarsiers are the only entirely carnivorous primates and consume a primarily insectivorous diet. Tarsiers are also one of the only nocturnal haplorhine primate groups (with the Owl Monkey being the other exception). Tarsiers are generally monogamous. Interestingly, tarsiers get their name from their particularly elongated tarsus bones of the feet, which aid in their arboreal leaping locomotive pattern. Tarsiidae species are critically endangered, which is of particular concern because humans have yet to form a successful captive breeding colony, perhaps due to their specific diets.
The phylogeny of Tarsiiformes with respect to strepsirrhines and haplorhines has been contentious due to the unique combination of behavioral and morphological features exhibited by the clade. However, novel genetic techniques have shown that tarsiers are more closely related to the Simiiformes (Old World Monkeys, apes, and New World Monkeys) than to the strepsirrhines (lemurs, lorises, galagos, and pottos).