The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Black, J. H.;Bragg, A. N. 1968. New addition to the herpetofauna of Montana. Herpetologica 24 (3): 247.
  • Blahnik, James F.;Cochran, Phillip A. 1994. Opheodrys vernalis (smooth green snake). USA: Wisconsin. Herpetological Review 25 (2): 77.
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336.
  • Casper, Gary S. 1996. Geographic Distribution. Opheodrys vernalis. Herpetological Review 27 (4): 214.
  • Collins, J. T. 1997. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians and Reptiles, Fourth Edition. ii + 40
  • Conant, Roger. 1938. The Reptiles of Ohio. American Midland Naturalist 20 (1): 1-200.
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cox, Christian L.; Eugenia S. Farrar, Jane D. Hey, and Matthew C. Morrill. 2009. Cover Object Usage Among an Assemblage of Iowa Snakes. Herp. Cons. Biol. 4: 80-84.
  • Crother, B. I. 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Herpetogical Circular, No. 29: 1-82.
  • Davis, William B. 1949. The smooth green snake in Texas. Copeia 1949 (3): 233.
  • Davis, William B. 1953. Another record of the smooth green snake in Texas. Herpetologica 9: 165.
  • Elmberg, J. 1980. Herpetological observations 77-78 [in Vernon county, Wisconsin]. Fältbiologerna Umea.
  • Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17. iv + 73
  • Frank & Kate's Web Page (Online source) External link.
  • Fritts, T. H. 1968. Intrabrood variation in Opheodrys vernalis (Harlan). Herpetologica 24 (1): 79-82.
  • Grobman,A.B. 1941. A contribution to the knowledge of variation in Opheodrys vernalis (Harlan), with the description of a new subspecies. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, No. 50: 1-38.
  • Grobman,A.B. 1992. Metamerism in the snake Opheodrys vernalis, with a description of a new subspecies. Journal of Herpetology 26 (2): 175-186.
  • Harding, J. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
  • Harlan, R. 1827. Genera of North American Reptilia, and synopsis of the species. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 5: 317-372.
  • Harlan, R. 1827. Genera of North American Reptilia, and synopsis of the species. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 5: 317-372
  • King, Richard B.; Oldham, Michael J.; Weller, Wayne F.; Wynn, Douglas. 1997. Historic and current amphibian and reptile distributions in the Island Region of Western Lake Erie. American Midland Naturalist 138(1):153-173.
  • LeClere, Jeff. 1994. Snakes of Minnesota: Smooth green snake (Opheodrys vernalis). Newsletter of the Minnesota Herpetological Society 14 (3): 10-13.
  • Liner,E.A. 1994. Scientific and common names for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. Herpetol. Circ. No. 23: 1-113, SSAR.
  • Livo, Lauren J.;Chiszar, David;Smith, Hobart M. 1996. Geographic Distribution. Liochlorophis (=Opheodrys) vernalis. Herpetological Review 27 (3): 154.
  • Meshaka, Jr., Walter E. & Joseph T. Collins. 2009. A POCKET GUIDE TO PENNSYLVANIA SNAKES. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 56 pp.
  • Oldham & Smith. 1991. The generic status of the smooth green snake, Opheodrys vernalis. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 27 (4): 201-215).
  • Oldham, J. C., and H. M. Smith. 1991. The Generic Status of the Smooth Green Snake, Opheodrys vernalis. Bulletin of Maryland Herpetology Society, vol. 27. 201-215
  • Paratype: Grobman, A. B. 1941. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 50: 11.
  • Robins, C. Richard. 1952. Variation in the greensnake, Opheodrys vernalis (Harlan), from the Black Hills, South Dakota. Copeia 1952 (3): 191-192.
  • Schmidt, T. 2002. Grasnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 78 pp.
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Thompson, Dorian. 1993. Four reptiles newly recorded from Ouray County, Colorado. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 28 (4): 78-79.
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1958. Herpetological range extensions. Herpetologica 14: 195-196.
  • Worthington, Richard D. 1973. Remarks on the distribution of the smooth green snake, Opheodrys vernalis blanchardi Grobman in Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 18 (3): 341-357.


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