The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2004. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada, draft (2004)
  • Black, J. H.;Bragg, A. N. 1968. New addition to the herpetofauna of Montana. Herpetologica 24 (3): 247.
  • Blahnik, James F.;Cochran, Phillip A. 1994. Opheodrys vernalis (smooth green snake). USA: Wisconsin. Herpetological Review 25 (2): 77.
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336.
  • Casper, Gary S. 1996. Geographic Distribution. Opheodrys vernalis. Herpetological Review 27 (4): 214.
  • Collins, J. T. 1997. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians and Reptiles, Fourth Edition. ii + 40
  • Conant, Roger. 1938. The Reptiles of Ohio. American Midland Naturalist 20 (1): 1-200.
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cox, Christian L.; Eugenia S. Farrar, Jane D. Hey, and Matthew C. Morrill. 2009. Cover Object Usage Among an Assemblage of Iowa Snakes. Herp. Cons. Biol. 4: 80-84.
  • Crother, B. I. 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Herpetogical Circular, No. 29: 1-82.
  • Davis, William B. 1949. The smooth green snake in Texas. Copeia 1949 (3): 233.
  • Davis, William B. 1953. Another record of the smooth green snake in Texas. Herpetologica 9: 165.
  • Elmberg, J. 1980. Herpetological observations 77-78 [in Vernon county, Wisconsin]. Fältbiologerna Umea.
  • Flores-Villela, Oscar / McCoy, C. J., ed. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana: Lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de México, cambios taxonómicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication, no. 17. iv + 73
  • Frank & Kate's Web Page (Online source) External link.
  • Fritts, T. H. 1968. Intrabrood variation in Opheodrys vernalis (Harlan). Herpetologica 24 (1): 79-82.
  • Grobman,A.B. 1941. A contribution to the knowledge of variation in Opheodrys vernalis (Harlan), with the description of a new subspecies. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, No. 50: 1-38.
  • Grobman,A.B. 1992. Metamerism in the snake Opheodrys vernalis, with a description of a new subspecies. Journal of Herpetology 26 (2): 175-186.
  • Harding, J. 1997. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Great Lakes Region. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
  • Harlan, R. 1827. Genera of North American Reptilia, and synopsis of the species. J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 5: 317-372.
  • Harlan, R. 1827. Genera of North American Reptilia, and synopsis of the species. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 5: 317-372
  • King, Richard B.; Oldham, Michael J.; Weller, Wayne F.; Wynn, Douglas. 1997. Historic and current amphibian and reptile distributions in the Island Region of Western Lake Erie. American Midland Naturalist 138(1):153-173.
  • LeClere, Jeff. 1994. Snakes of Minnesota: Smooth green snake (Opheodrys vernalis). Newsletter of the Minnesota Herpetological Society 14 (3): 10-13.
  • Liner,E.A. 1994. Scientific and common names for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. Herpetol. Circ. No. 23: 1-113, SSAR.
  • Livo, Lauren J.;Chiszar, David;Smith, Hobart M. 1996. Geographic Distribution. Liochlorophis (=Opheodrys) vernalis. Herpetological Review 27 (3): 154.
  • Meshaka, Jr., Walter E. & Joseph T. Collins. 2009. A POCKET GUIDE TO PENNSYLVANIA SNAKES. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 56 pp.
  • Oldham & Smith. 1991. The generic status of the smooth green snake, Opheodrys vernalis. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 27 (4): 201-215).
  • Oldham, J. C., and H. M. Smith. 1991. The Generic Status of the Smooth Green Snake, Opheodrys vernalis. Bulletin of Maryland Herpetology Society, vol. 27. 201-215
  • Paratype: Grobman, A. B. 1941. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 50: 11.
  • Robins, C. Richard. 1952. Variation in the greensnake, Opheodrys vernalis (Harlan), from the Black Hills, South Dakota. Copeia 1952 (3): 191-192.
  • Schmidt, T. 2002. Grasnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 78 pp.
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Thompson, Dorian. 1993. Four reptiles newly recorded from Ouray County, Colorado. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 28 (4): 78-79.
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1958. Herpetological range extensions. Herpetologica 14: 195-196.
  • Uetz P. (2013). TIGR Reptile Database (version Oct 2007). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Worthington, Richard D. 1973. Remarks on the distribution of the smooth green snake, Opheodrys vernalis blanchardi Grobman in Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 18 (3): 341-357.


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