The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bean, W.J. 1980. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles, ed. 8, Vols. 1-4. John Murray, London
  • Farjon A. (2015). Conifer Database (version Jan 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Grimshaw, J. & Bayton, R. 2009. New trees (recent introductions to cultivation). Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. 2: 1039.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Watson, Frank D., and James E. Eckenwalder. 1993. Cupressaceae Bartlett: Redwood or Cypress Family. Flora of North America North of Mexico, vol. 2: Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. 399-422
    1. Adams, Robert P. 1987. Investigation of Juniperus species of the  United States for new sources of cedarwood oil. Economic Botany  41(l):48-54.
    3. Adams, R. P., and B. L. Turner. 1970. Chemosystematic and numerical  studies of natural populations of Juniperus ashei Buch. Taxon  19(5):728-751.
    5. Arend, John L., and Robert F. Collins. 1949. A site classification  for eastern red cedar in the Ozarks. p. 510-511. In Proceedings,  Fifteenth Meeting of the Soil Science Society of America.
    7. Bahari, Z. A., S. G. Pallardy, and W. C. Parker. 1985.  Photosynthesis, water relations, and drought adaptation in six woody  species of oak-hickory forests in central Missouri. Forest Science  31(3):557-569.
    9. Baker, Whiteford L. 1972. Eastern forest insects. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Miscellaneous Publication 1175. Washington, DC. 642 p. 
    11. Box, Benton H., and Lenville C. Beech. 1968. Vegetative propagation  trials of eastern redcedar and Arizona cypress in the greenhouse. Tree  Planters' Notes 19(3):1-2.
    13. Bragg, Thomas B., and Lloyd C. Hulbert. 1976. Woody plant invasion of  unburned Kansas bluestem prairie. Journal of Range Management  29(l):19-24.
    15. Croxton, W. C. 1939. A study of the tolerance of trees to breakage  by ice accumulation. Ecology 20:71-73.
    17. Elwell, Harry M., P. W. Santelmann, J. F. Stritzke, and Howard Greer.  1974. Brush control research in Oklahoma. Oklahoma Agriculture  Experiment Station, Bulletin B-712. Oklahoma State University,  Stillwater. 46 p.
    19. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and  Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 p.
    21. Ferguson, E. R., E. R. Lawson, W. R. Maple, and C. Mesavage. 1968.  Managing eastern redcedar. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper SO-37.  Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA. 14 p.
    23. Fiedler, D. J., and J. D. Otta. 1978. Control of Phomopsis blight in  eastern redcedar with benomyl. Proceedings of the American  Phytopathological Society 4:126.
    25. Flake, Robert H., Ernst von Rudloff, and B. L. Turner. 1973.  Confirmation of a clinal pattern of chemical differentiation in  Juniperus virginiana from terpenoid data obtained in successive  years. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry 6:215-228.
    27. Flake, R. H., L. Urbatsch, and B. L. Turner. 1978. Chemical  documentation of allopatric introgression in Juniperus. Systematic  Botany 3(2):129-144.
    29. Fowells, H. A., comp. 1965. Silvics of forest trees of the United  States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 271.  Washington, DC. 762 p.
    31. Fralish, James S. 1988. Predicting potential stand composition from  site characteristics in the Shawnee Hills forest of Illinois. The  American Midland Naturalist 120(l):79-101.
    33. Ginter-Whitehouse, Deborah L., Thomas M. Hinckley, and Stephen G.  Pallardy. 1983. Spacial and temporal aspects of water relations of three  tree species with different vascular anatomy. Forest Science  29(2):317-329.
    35. Grand, James B., and Ralph E. Mirarchi. 1988. Habitat use by recently  fledged mourning doves in east-central Alabama. Journal of Wildlife  Management 52(l):153-157.
    37. Hall, Marion T., Aprna Mukherjee, and Webster R. Crowley. 1979.  Chromosome numbers of cultivated junipers. Botanical Gazette 140  (3):364-370.
    39. Halls, Lowell K. 1977. Eastern redcedar/Juniperus virginiana L.  In Southern fruit-producing woody plants used by wildlife. p. 105-107.  Lowell K. Halls, ed. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report  SO-16. Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA.
    41. Hepting, George H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the  United States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 386.  Washington, DC. 658 p.
    43. Hinckley, T. M., P. M. Dougherty, J. P. Lassoie, J. E. Roberts, and  R. 0. Teskey. 1979. A severe drought: impact on tree growth, phenology,  net photosynthetic rate and water relations. The American Midland  Naturalist 102(2):307-316.
    45. Johnsen, Thomas N., Jr., and Robert A. Alexander. 1974. Juniperus  L. Juniper. In Seeds of woody plants in the United States.  p. 460-469. C. S. Schopmeyer, tech. coord. U.S. Department of  Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 450. Washington, DC.
    47. Lassoie, James P., Phillip M. Dougherty, Peter B. Reich, Thomas M.  Hinckley, Clifford M. Metcalf, and Stephen J. Dina. 1983.  Ecophysiological investigations of understory eastern redcedar in  central Missouri. Ecology 64(6):1355-1366.
    49. Lawson, Edwin R. 1985. Eastern redcedar - an American wood. USDA  Forest Service, FS-260. Washington, DC. 7 p.
    51. Limstrom, G. A. 1963. Forest planting practice in the Central States,  U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 247. Washington,  DC. 69 p.
    53. Little, Elbert L., Jr. 197 1. Atlas of United States trees, vol. 1.  Conifers and important hardwoods. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Miscellaneous Publication 1146. Washington, DC. 9 p., 313 maps.
    55. Meade, Fayette M. 1955. Converting low-grade hardwood stands to  conifers in the Arkansas Ozarks. University of Arkansas Agriculture  Experiment Station, Bulletin 551. Fayetteville. 26 p.
    57. Minckler, Leon S., and Albert A. Downs. 1946. Machine and hand  direct seeding of pine and cedar in the Piedmont, USDA Forest Service,  Technical Note 67. Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville,  NC. 10 p.
    59. Ormsbee, P., F. A. Buzzaz, and W. R. Boggess. 1976. Physiological  ecology of Juniperus virginiana in oldfields. Oecologia  23(l):75-82.
    61. Owensby, Clenton E., Kenneth R. Blan, B. J. Eaton, and 0. G. Russ.  1973. Evaluation of eastern redcedar infestations in the northern Kansas  Flint Hills. Journal of Range Management 26(4):256-260.
    63. Peterson, Glenn W., and J. D. Otta. 1979. Controlling phomopsis  blight of junipers. American Nurseryman 149(5):15,75,78,80-82.
    65. Pinney, John J. 1970. A simplified process for grafting junipers.  American Nurseryman 131(10):7, 82-84.
    67. Rykiel, Edward J., Jr., and Terry L. Cook. 1986. Hardwood-redcedar  clusters in the post oak savanna of Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist  31(l):73-78.
    69. Smith, Ronald C. 1977. Woody ornamentals that survive tough Texas  environment. American Nurseryman 146(12):13,52,54.
    71. Stoeckeler, J. H., and G. W. Jones. 1957. Forest nursery practice in  the Lake States. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook  110. Washington, DC. 124 p.
    73. Stoeckeler, J. H., and P. E. Slabaugh. 1965. Conifer nursery  practice in the Prairie-Plains. U.S. Department of Agriculture,  Agriculture Handbook 279. Washington, DC. 93 p.
    75. Tauer, C. G., K. D. Harris, and David F. Van Haverbeke. 1987. Seed  source influences juniper seedling survival under severe drought  conditions. USDA Forest Service, Research Note RM-470. Rocky Mountain  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.
    77. Thompson, Frank R., III, and Erik K. Fritzell. 1988. Ruffed grouse  winter roost site preference and influence on energy demands. Journal of  Wildlife Management 52(3):454-460.
    79. U.S. Department of Interior, Geological Survey. 1970. The National  atlas of the United States of America. p. 97. U.S. Department of  Interior, Geological Survey, Washington, DC.
    81. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1968. A population analysis of Juniperus  in the Missouri River Basin. University of Nebraska Studies, New  Series 38. Lincoln. 82 p.
    83. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1977. Conifers for single-row field  windbreaks. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper RM-196. Rocky Mountain  Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 10 p.
    85. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1981. Personal communication. USDA Forest  Service, Fort Collins, CO.
    87. Van Haverbeke, David F. 1984. Clonal and sexual variation in initial  graft take of Juniperus virginiana. Canadian Journal of Forest  Research 14(3):473-474.
    89. Van Haverbeke, David F., and Michael R. Barnhart. 1978. A laboratory  technique for depulping Juniperus cones. Tree Planters' Notes  29(4):33-34.
    91. Van Haverbeke, David F., and C. W. Comer. 1985. Effects of treatment  and seed source on germination of eastern redcedar seed. USDA Forest  Service, Research Paper RM-263. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range  Experiment Station. Fort Collins, CO. 7 p.
    93. Van Haverbeke, David F., and Ralph A. Read. 1976. Genetics of  eastern redcedar. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper WO-32. Washington,  DC. 17 p.


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