The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • "Flea." Wikipedia. 2013. .
  • Borror, D. J., C. A. Triplehorn, and N. F. Johnson. 1989. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Sixth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia.
  • Borror, Donald, Charles Triplehorn, and Norman Johnson. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. 6th ed. Saunders College Publishing, 1989. 489-498. Print.
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • Capinera, John. "Fleas (Siphonaptera)." Encyclopedia of Entomology. 4. 2008.
  • Dallai, R., P. Lupetti, B.A. Afzelius, et al. 2003. Sperm structure of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera (Insecta) and the phylogenetic position of Boreus hyemalis. Zoomorphology 122(4): 211-220.
  • Forsyth, A. 1992. Exploring the World of Insects: The Equinox Guide to Insect Behaviour. Camden House.
  • Grimaldi, D. and M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of Insects. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Hastriter, M. W. and M. F. Whiting. 2003. Ephemeroptera (Mayflies). Pages 1040-1044 in Encyclopedia of Insects, V. H. Resh and R. T. Cardé, eds. Academic Press, New York.
  • Preston-Mafham, Rod, and Ken Preston-Mafham. "Fleas."Encyclopedia of Insects and Spiders. San Diego: 2005.
  • Whiting, M.F. 2002. Mecoptera is paraphyletic: multiple genes and phylogeny of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera. Zoologica Scripta 31(1): 93-104.


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