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Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: RESIDENT: central Sonora, southern Chihuahua, Durango, San Luis Potosi, Nuevo Leon, and southern Texas south mostly in lowlands to central Costa Rica. Northernmost populations migratory (AOU 1998). Breeds in the lower and middle Rio Grande Valley in southern Texas and adjacent Tamaulipas, Mexico, then from Mexico's Rio Corona south into Central America (Brush 1998, DeGraaf et al. 1991). Breeding populations extend to both east and west coasts of Mexico (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 37 cm

Weight: 324 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: In northern part of range inhabits semi-arid woodlands below 1100 meters, usually near water. In Mexico and Central America principally in lowlands, inhabiting forest patches. In more humid regions forages in open pastureland and areas with scattered trees, tall brush, bamboo, and in agricultural fields (AOU 1983, Brush 1998, DeGraaf et al. 1991, Terres 1980, Peterson and Chalif 1973, Sutton and Pettingill 1942). Frequents mature riparian woodland of Mexican ash (FRAXINUS BERLANDIERIANA), cedar elm (ULMUS CRASSIFOLIA), sugar hackberry (CELTIS LAEVIGATA), black willow (SALIX NIGRA), retama (PARKINSONIA ACULEATA), and adjacent subtropical evergreen forest dominated by Texas ebony (PITHECELLOBIUM EBANO). Also thornscrub habitat of huisache (ACACIA SMALLII), mesquite (PROSOPIS GLANDULOSA), and possum grape (CISSUS INCISA).

In Belize, utilizes both the northern semideciduous moist forests, and in southern moist-wet evergreen broadleaf forests; it is uncommon however in the coastal savannas and marshes (Wood et al. 1986, Garcia et al. 1994). In Costa Rica prefers open country with scattered trees; may range up to 2140 meters in semi-arid plateaus or up to 1070 meters in less arid areas; especially numerous in clearings at mid-elevations (del Hoyo et al. 1997, Stiles and Skutch 1989). Fond of water, visits water holes and sandbars in streams to drink and bathe (Bent 1932, Stiles and Skutch 1989, Terres 1980).

Nests in large tree or small sapling; on horizontal branch, in clump of small branches, or in tree concealed by tangle of vines or brush. Also nesting sometimes in a dead tree, often in a small copse, plantation, or large tree in open rather than inside dense woodland (Harrison 1978, Stiles and Skutch 1989, Sutton and Pettingill 1942). Most successful nesting in lower Rio Grande Valley occurs on riparian islands (Brush 1998).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Considered a short distance migrant (Wood et al. 1986). Flocks of 15-20 individuals arrive in Texas in February (del Hoyo et al. 1997). Mostly absent from Texas in winter (DeGraaf et al. 1991). In southern portion of range is resident year-round (Miller and Miller 1997).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats berries, acorns (QUERCUS spp.), fruits such as guava (PSIDIUM spp.), figs (FICUS spp.), sugar hackberries, possum grape (CISSUS INCISA) and buds plucked from trees or shrubs (Bent 1932, Brush 1998, Collins 1960, Oberholser 1974, Terres 1980, DeGraaf et al. 1991). Usually forages high in crowns of trees but sometimes on ground. Mistletoe berries evidently a favorite food when available (Goodwin 1983). In Mexico may follow mast crops (Bent 1932). Is known to use grain stubble, corn, and sorghum fields for foraging. May aggregate around salt sources (Dickey and Van Rossem 1938).

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: Appears to presently occur within entire historic range from south Texas to Central America, though presently less abundant in Texas than historically noted. Some occurrences in Texas have been extirpated, the remaining occurrences there are fair to poor, and may not be viable in restricted and degraded habitat. It is estimated that the majority of occurrences in central and southern portions of range are good to excellent.

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Global Abundance

10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Hunted in Mexico and some 1000-3000 birds are declared annually by hunters crossing the border back into the U.S. (del Hoyo et al. 1997). In the lower Rio Grande region the taxon is believed to have declined dramatically this century, is currently considered local and uncommon, and in danger of extirpation as a breeding population with only 30 birds documented (Brush 1998, DeGraaf et al. 1991, Taylor 1944). Local extirpations have occurred (Brush and Cantu 1998).

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General Ecology

Usually singly or in breeding pairs, occasionally larger groups (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Regular flocks of ten to fifty birds have been reported outside the breeding season (Sutton and Pettingill 1942, Terres 1980).

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

In Mexico nest building has been noted in mid-March (Sutton and Pettingill 1942). Nest is constructed 1.5-25 meters above ground; a solitary frail structure of small twigs sometimes lined with fine stems and grasses, about 20 centimeters across and 5 centimeters deep (Harrison 1978). In U.S. eggs are laid mostly in April-June, and nests remain active into late August. Clutch size usually is one; eggs are pure white, slightly glossy. Breeding season may be prolonged with several broods per year (Bent 1932). Both sexes incubate eggs and tend young (Brush 1998, del Hoyo et al. 1997, Harrison 1978, Terres 1980).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Patagioenas flavirostris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TCTATACTTAATCTTCGGCGCATGAGCCGGCATAGTCGGCACCGCACTTAGCCTCCTCATTCGCGCAGAACTAGGACAACCAGGCACTCTTCTAGGAGACGACCAAATCTACAATGTAATTGTTACAGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATACCCATCATAATCGGAGGCTTTGGAAACTGATTAGTTCCCCTTATAATCGGCGCCCCCGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATGAACAACATAAGCTTTTGACTACTACCCCCATCTTTCCTCCTTCTCCTGGCTTCTTCCACAGTCGAAGCTGGTGCAGGAACAGGATGAACCGTATACCCTCCCCTAGCCGGCAACCTAGCCCACGCAGGAGCTTCCGTAGACCTTGCCATCTTCTCCCTCCATCTTGCCGGTGTCTCTTCCATCCTAGGGGCCATCAACTTTATCACGACTGCCATTAACATAAAACCACCAGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCCCTATTCGTATGATCAGTCCTCATCACTGCCGTCCTCCTTCTCCTATCCCTCCCAGTCCTTGCCGCCGGCATTACAATACTACTCACAGACCGGAACCTTAACACTACTTTCTTCGACCCTGCCGGTGGAGGTGACCCAGTATTATACCAACACCTCTTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTCTNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Patagioenas flavirostris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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