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BiologyThis perennial orchid flowers in May and June (1). It tends to flower only if conditions are favourable with sufficient light, and it can persist vegetatively in deep shade for many years (7). It reproduces by seed. Flowers are pollinated by small solitary bees and are probably not self-fertile (7). Fruit production is relatively poor (10-20%), but large numbers of seeds are set in capsules that do develop (7). Seeds are wind-dispersed, and require a mycorrhizal fungal partner to develop (7).