The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Aiken, S. & S.J. Darbyshire. 1990. Fescue Grasses of Canada
  • Aiken, S. G., M. J. Dallwitz, C. L. McJannet & L. L. Consaul. 1997. Biodiversity among Festuca (Poaceae) in North America: Diagnostic evidence from DELTA and clustering programs, and an INTKEY package for interactive, illustrated identification and information retrieval. Canad. J. Bot. 75(9): 1527–1555.
  • Alexeev, E. B. 1980. Festuca L. subgenera et sectiones novae ex America et Mexica. Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 17: 42–53.
  • Bulletin de la Société Botanique de France 71: 120. 1924. (Bull. Soc. Bot. France)
  • Böcher, T. W. 1978. Greenlands Flora 326 pp.
  • Cody, W. J. 1996. Fl. Yukon Terr. i–xvii, 1–669. NRC Research Press, Ottawa.
  • Darbyshire, S.J., R. J. Soreng, D. Stančík & S. D. Koch. 2003. Festuca. In Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48: 312–368.
  • Espejo Serna, A., A. R. López-Ferrari & J. Valdés-Reyna. 2000. Poaceae. Monocot. Mexic. Sinopsis Floríst. 10: 7–236 [and index].
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2006. Flora of China (Poaceae). 22: 1–733. In C. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds.) Fl. China. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis.
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Hitchcock, A. S. 1951. Man. Grasses U.S. (ed. 2) 1–1051. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
  • Holmen, K. 1968. Check-list Vasc. Pl. Greenland 1–40.
  • Hultén, E. 1968. Fl. Alaska i–xxi, 1–1008. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • J.J.Roemer & J.A.Schultes. 1827. In: Mant. 3: 646
  • Mantissa 3(Add. 1): 646. 1827. (Mant.)
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Munz, P. A. 1974. Fl. S. Calif. 1–1086. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Porsild, A. E. & W. Cody. 1980. Vasc. Pl. Continental Northw. Terr. Canada i–viii, 1–607. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
  • Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, E. J. Judziewicz, T. S. Filgueiras & O. N. Morrone. 2003 and onwards. On-line taxonomic novelties and updates, distributional additions and corrections, and editorial changes since the four published volumes of the Catalogue of New World Grasses (Poaceae) published in Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. vols. 39, 41, 46, and 48. In R. J. Soreng, G. Davidse, P. M. Peterson, F. O. Zuloaga, T. S. Filgueiras, E. J. Judziewicz & O. N. Morrone (eds.) Internet Cat. New World Grasses. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Tolmatchev, A. I. 1964. Gramineae. Arktic. Fl. SSSR 2: 1–274.
  • Type collection: Muhlenberg, H. L. 1817. Descript. Gram. 167.


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