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BiologyA short-lived perennial herb which mainly reproduces by seed, and whose populations fluctuate from year to year (8). 70% of the plants flower in the first year that they appear, and most die afterwards, but some may live for up to 10 years (8). About half of the plants are dormant underground each year (8). Leaves grow from the tubers in late autumn and overwinter, withering after flowering (8). It persists through the summer as underground tubers (8). This orchid flowers in early April to early May (8), a good month before the aptly named late spider orchid (Ophrys fusciflora) (2). Flowers are pollinated by bees of the genus Andrena, but only around 10% of the flowers produce ripe seed. Self-pollination does occur, but it is inefficient (8).