The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • A. LOMBARD, janvier 2003. In Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle [Ed]. Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, site Web.
  • Cole, M.A.R. 1991. Vegetation management guideline: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). Natural Areas Journal 11(3):171.
  • Euphorbia esula x waldsteinii (E. x pseudovirgata) (Schur) Soo
  • Govaerts R. (ed). For a full list of reviewers see: (2015). WCSP: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (version Sep 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. : 461
  • Lacey, C.A., R.W. Kott, and P.K. Fay. 1984. Ranchers control leafy spurge. Rangelands 6(5):202-204.
  • Lym, R.G., C.G. Messersmith, R. Zollinger. 1993. Leafy spurge identification and control. Report W-765. North Dakota State University Extension Service, NDSU, Fargo.
  • Parker, P.E. 1995. CPC and USDA team up to fight exotic weeds. Plant Conservation 9(2):6-7.
  • Sun, M. 1981. The purge of leafy spurge. Science 214:1103.
  • Swearingen, J. 2009. WeedUS Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States: Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula).
  • The Nature Conservancy. Leafy Spurge: Element Stewardship Abstract. In: Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program, Weeds on the Web.
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1992. Biological Control of Leafy Spurge. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Program Aid Number 1435.
  • USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database ( National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
  • Wolters, G.L., C.H. Sieg, A.J. Bjugstad, and F.R. Gartner. 1994. Herbicide and fire effects on leafy spurge density and seed germination. Research Note RM-526. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U.S.D.A. Forest Service.


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