The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Guiry, Michael D. (2010). Gymnodinium Stein, 1878. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2016). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Gymnodinium
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Org. Infus., 3 (1), 89.
  • Reid, P.C.; Lancelot, C.; Gieskes, W.W.C.; Hagmeier, E.; Weichart, G. (1990). Phytoplankton of the North Sea and its dynamics: a review. Neth. J. Sea Res. 26(2-4): 295-331
  • Steidinger, Karen A. and Karl Tangen / Carmelo R. Tomas ed. 1997. Dinoflagellates. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. 387-584


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!