The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1999. "Firefly or Lightning Bug: Photinus pyralis" (On-line). Accessed April 12, 2001 at
  • 2001. Firefly. Pp. 134 in World Book. Chicago: World Book Incorporated.
  • Arnett, R. 1985. American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of North America and Mexico. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Grzimek, D. 1972. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Luk, Stephen P. L., Stephen A. Marshall, and Marc A. Branham. 2011. The Fireflies of Ontario (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification, no. 16. 1-105
  • McDermot, F. A. / Steel, W. O., ed. 1966. Lampyridae. Coleopterorum Catalogus Supplementa, pars 9
  • McDermott, F. A. / Steel, W. O., ed. 1966. Lampyridae. Coleopterorum Catalogus Supplementa, pars 9. 149
  • Milne, L., M. Milne. 1980. The Audobon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. New York: Chanticleir Press.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Pepling, Rachel Sheremeta. 2006. All That Glows: Bioluminescence provides practical applications while still remaining a mystery. Chemical & Engineering News. 84(14): 36-38.
  • Pesson, P. 1959. The World of Insects. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Tweit, S. 1999. Dance of the Fireflies. Audubon, 101, Issue 4: 16,28-31.


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