Bombus hortorum (L., 1761)
Type status: Other material. Occurrence: occurrenceRemarks: on Campanula barbata L.; recordedBy: S. Bossert ; individualCount: 1 ; sex: 1 female; Location: country: Austria ; stateProvince: Tyrol; locality: Zemmgrund ; verbatimElevation: 2057 m; decimalLatitude: 47.025236 ; decimalLongitude: 11.812656 ; Event: samplingProtocol: manual catch ; eventDate: 07-10-12 ; habitat: aggregation of mountain pines / alpine meadow
Palaearctic ( Williams 1998 , Williams 2014 ).
Plant / pollenated
adult of Bombus hortorum pollenates or fertilises flower of Spiranthes romanzoffiana
Other: major host/prey
Animal / parasitoid / endoparasitoid
solitary larva of Physocephala rufipes is endoparasitoid of adult of Bombus hortorum
Animal / sequestrates
female of Psithyrus barbutellus takes over nest of Bombus hortorum
Other: sole host/prey
Animal / parasitoid / endoparasitoid
solitary larva of Sicus ferrugineus is endoparasitoid of adult of Bombus hortorum
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Bombus hortorum
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bombus hortorum
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
This bumblebee has an oblong head and a very long tongue, about 15 mm (0.59 in), and in some cases even 20 mm (0.79 in). The tongue is so long, the bee often flies with it extended when collecting nectar. The queen is variable in size, with body lengths between 19 and 22 mm (0.75 and 0.87 in), and wing spans from 35 to 38 mm (1.4 to 1.5 in). The workers are almost as large, the larger ones overlapping the smaller queens. Their colour is black with a yellow collar, a narrow yellow band on the scutellum, and a third yellow band on terga (abdominal segments) 1 and 2. The tail is white. Darker forms, with little yellow in their fur, are common.
The nest, normally containing 50 to 120 workers, can be built both above and below ground. Due to its long tongue, this bumblebee mainly visits flowers with deep corollae, such as deadnettles, ground ivy, vetches, clovers, comfrey, foxglove, and thistles.
As with most bumblebees, the males of this species patrol a fixed circuit, marking objects along the route, about a metre above ground, with a pheromone to attract queens. This behaviour was noted by Darwin 1886 in his own garden.
This species is found in Europe as far north as 70ºN (in Scandinavia, south of the tundra). In the west, its distribution reaches Iceland, where it probably has been introduced. In the south, it extends to the middle of the Iberian Peninsula, to southern Italy (Calabria), northern Turkey, and to the Mediterranean islands except Corsica, Sicily, and (probably) Sardinia. It continues in northern and central Asia through Siberia to the Altai Mountains, and, in the southeast, to northern Iran. In 1885, it was introduced in New Zealand, where it still exists, but without being particularly common. It is also found in America, namely Florida. In Britain, it is widespread through the entire region, including Orkney and Shetland.
- ITIS Report
- Pierre Rasmont. "Bombus (Megabombus) hortorum (Linnaeus, 1761)". Université de Mons. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Bombus hortorum the Garden bumblebee". Bumblebee.org. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- Benton, Ted (2006). "Chapter 9: The British Species". Bumblebees. London, UK: HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 351–355. ISBN 0007174519.
- Dave Goulson Bumblebees: behaviour, ecology, and conservation p. 47
- Goulson, Dave Bumblebees: behaviour, ecology, and conservation pp. 219-220
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