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Range DescriptionFulica alai is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (USA), where it is found on all the main islands except Kaho`olawe (USFWS 2005). Formerly, it was also absent from Lna`i, which, along with Kaho`olawe, lacked suitable wetland habitat (USFWS 2005). Stragglers reach as far west as Kure in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. It declined dramatically during the 20th century (Berger 1972), although it increased on O`ahu from the mid-1970s to the late 1980s. During this period, highly variable numbers on other islands showed no local trends (M. Reed in litt. 2007). Survey data from 1976 to 2003 reveal short-term population fluctuations, with a long-term slight increase in the overall population (USFWS 2005). The current population probably fluctuates between 2,000 and 4,000 individuals, with Kaua`i, O`ahu and Maui supporting 80% of this total (, Pratt 1987, Engilis and Pratt 1993, USFWS 2005). Some 30 colonies or concentrations are known (H. C. Baker and P. E. Baker in litt. 1999, J. Lepson in litt. 1999).