The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (March, 2009) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 10. Zusi, R.L. and Bridge, D. (1981) On the slit pupil of the black skimmer (Rynchops niger). Journal of Field Ornithology, 52 (4): 338 - 340.
  • 11. Safina, C. and Burger, J. (1983) Effects of human disturbance on reproductive success in the black skimmer. Condor, 85: 164 - 171.
  • 2. del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (1996) Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
  • 2006. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Rynchops niger. Accessed October 11, 2006 at
  • 2011. Zoonomen - Zoological Nomenclature Resource, 2011.04.02
  • 2011. IOC World Bird List, Master List v2.9
  • 2011. AOU Check-List (08-2011)
  • 3. Hilty, S.L. and Brown, W.L. (1986) A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
  • 4. Burton, M. and Burton, R. (2002) International Wildlife Encyclopedia. Third Edition. Marshall Cavendish, New York.
  • 5. Gochfeld, M. and Burger, J. (1994) The Birds of North America Online: Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca. Available at External link.
  • 6. Blake, E.R. (1977) Manual of Neotropical Birds. Volume 1: Spheniscidae (Penguins) to Laridae (Gulls and Allies). University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • 7. The Cornell Lab of Ornithology - All About Birds: Black Skimmer (April, 2009) External link.
  • 8. Audubon: Black Skimmer (April, 2009) External link.
  • 9. BirdLife International (April, 2009) External link.
  • Adriaens, P. (2015). Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • American Ornithologists's Union. 1998. Check-List of North American Birds (The Species of Birds of North America from the Arctic through Panama, Including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands). 7th.ed.. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A..
  • Araya BM & G Millie. 1991. Guía de campo de las aves de Chile. 4ta ed. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago. 405 p.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • BirdLife International 2012. Rynchops niger
  • Burger, J. 1981. Sexual differences in parental activities of breeding black skimmers. American Naturalist, 117 (6): 975-984. Accessed October 11, 2006 at
  • Burger, J., M. Gochfeld. 1990. The Black Skimmer: Social Dynamics of a Colonial Species. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Clapp et al. (1983) Longevity records of North American birds: Columbidae through Paridae. J Field Ornithol, 54:123-137.
  • Collins, C. "U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service" (On-line). Black skimmer (Rynchops niger). Accessed October 11, 2006 at
  • Delgado, R.; R.G. Campos; J. Sánchez y Ch. Gómez. 1998. Lista de Aves de Costa Rica/ Checklist of Costa Rican Birds. ASOCIACION ORNITOLOGICA DE COSTA RICA. San José. Costa Rica. 28 p..
  • Dow Chemical Company. 2006. "Dow Black Skimmer Colony" (On-line). Accessed October 25, 2006 at
  • Elizondo, L.H. 1992. Especies de Aves Migratorias Neárticas en Costa Rica. Base de Datos de Biodiversidad, Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio). Santo Domingo, Heredia. Costa Rica. 6 p. (mimeografiado).
  • Erwin, M. 1977. Black skimmer breeding ecology and behavior. The Auk, 94 (4): 709-717. Accessed October 11, 2006 at
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names
  • Gill, Frank, and Minturn Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. ix + 259
  • Gochfeld, M., J. Burger. 1994. Black skimmer. Pp. 1-29 in A Poole, F Gill, eds. The Birds of North America, Vol. 3 (108), 1st Edition. Philadelphia, PA: American Ornithologists Union & The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.
  • Gochfeld, Michael and Joanna Burger. 1994. Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online:
  • Groom, M. 1992. Sand-colored nighthawks parasitize the antipredator behavior of three nesting bird species. Ecology, 73 (3): 785-793. Accessed October 10, 2006 at
  • Hammerson, G., S. Cannings. 2006. "NatureServe Explorer" (On-line). Comprehensive Report Species - Rynchops niger. Accessed October 11, 2006 at
  • Lewis, T.J. & F.G. Stiles.1980. Locational checklist of the birds of Costa Rica. Costa Rica Expeditions. San José, Costa Rica.
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.
  • Mariano-Jelicich, R., M. Faver. 2006. Assessing the diet of the black skimmer through different methodologies: is the analysis of pellets reliable?. Waterbirds, 29 (1): 81-87. Accessed November 06, 2006 at
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Global: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Sept 12). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Sibley, Ch. and B. Monroe, Jr.. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press. New Haven & London. 1111 p.
  • Slud, P. 1964. The birds of Costa Rica: Distribution and Ecology. Bulletin of The American Museum of Natural History 128: 5-430
  • Slud, P. 1980. The birds of Hacienda Palo Verde, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. 62 p.
  • Stiles, F.G. & A. F.Skutch. 1995. Guía de Aves de Costa Rica.Tradución al Español: Loretta Rosselli. Ilustrado por Dana Gardner. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio). Heredia, Costa Rica. 580 p.
  • Stiles, F.G. 1983. Checklist of birds. Pp. 530-544, In: D.H. Janzen (ed.). Costa Rican Natural History. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Stiles,F.G. y S. Smith. 1977. New Information on Costa Rican Waterbirds. The Condor 79: 91-97.


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