The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Fell, F. Julian / Parker, Sybil P., ed. 1982. Echinodermata. Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, vol. 2. 785-813
  • Hendler, Gordon, John E. Miller, David L. Pawson, and Porter M. Kier. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. xi + 390
  • Smith, Andrew B. 1984. Classification of the Echinodermata. Palaeontology, vol 27, pt. 3. 431-459
  • WoRMS (2014). Echinozoa. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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