Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 The buoy barnacle Dosima fascicularis is a stalked (pedunculate) barnacle with a swollen head-like capitulum. Like other barnacles, it bears plates (in this case five large ones) although the stalk is naked. The buoy barnacle is markedly different to the acorn barnacles commonly found on rocky shores, especially in size, and closely resembles goose barnacles (see for example Lepas anatifera). It can be pale yellowish to purplish-brown in colour and, although commonly found in small numbers attached to small floating objects, can also be washed ashore in large groups attached to the same object.Dosima fascicularis was originally known as Lepas fascicularis to Linnaeus and Darwin although it was separated as Dosima by Gray in 1825 (Darwin, 1851). 

Recorded distribution in Britain and Ireland (continued)
 Big strandings have occurred in recent years, in Cornwall on the north coast (e.g. Turk, 1982), and in Ireland in West Cork and counties Mayo and Sligo (Minchin, 1996; Cotton et al., 2006). Such strandings may also include large numbers of the by-the-wind-sailor (Velella velella), the Portuguese-Man-o-War (Physalia physalis), the snail (Janthina sp.) and other members of a community that lives close to the water surface and has been called neuston. The buoy-barnacle is recorded as being stranded also in the Faeroe Islands and southern Norway (Nilsson-Cantell, 1986). There are old records for the North Sea coast of Britain, mentioned by Nilsson-Cantell (1986) and Foster-Smith (2000), but these need validating.

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Distribution

Range covers both subprovinces of Acadian and Virginian, including Cobscook Bay.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Range covers both subprovinces of Acadian and Virginian, including Cobscook Bay.
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Range covers both subprovinces of Acadian and Virginian, including Cobscook Bay.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 753
  Temperature range (°C): 3.825 - 7.340
  Nitrate (umol/L): 9.276 - 18.279
  Salinity (PPS): 34.911 - 35.166
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.047 - 6.197
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.759 - 1.248
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.546 - 12.552

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 753

Temperature range (°C): 3.825 - 7.340

Nitrate (umol/L): 9.276 - 18.279

Salinity (PPS): 34.911 - 35.166

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.047 - 6.197

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.759 - 1.248

Silicate (umol/l): 4.546 - 12.552
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
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Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 753
  Temperature range (°C): 3.825 - 7.340
  Nitrate (umol/L): 9.276 - 18.279
  Salinity (PPS): 34.911 - 35.166
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.047 - 6.197
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.759 - 1.248
  Silicate (umol/l): 4.546 - 12.552

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 753

Temperature range (°C): 3.825 - 7.340

Nitrate (umol/L): 9.276 - 18.279

Salinity (PPS): 34.911 - 35.166

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.047 - 6.197

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.759 - 1.248

Silicate (umol/l): 4.546 - 12.552
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 The buoy-barnacle, sometimes called the buoy-goose-barnacle, was first noted by James Ellis, who had a specimen from St. Georges Channel, and was described by himself and Daniel Solander (1786); see also Pennant (1812). It is distinguished from goose-barnacles of the genus Lepas by an ability to make its own float. The young forms settle on small floating particles in the water, and as they grow they produce a spongy secretion from modified cement glands, comparable in texture to polystyrene, which keeps them near the surface of the water and is increased in volume as the barnacle grows. Darwin described the float in his monograph on the Lepadidae (1851). Other individual barnacles attach to the float and in this way a large colony is constructed. Sometimes the buoy-barnacle attaches to larger objects including feathers lost from sea birds (Couch, 1841) and even old tar balls that have lost the toxicity of the original crude oil (Minchin, 1996). O Riordan (1967) reported that it the buoy barnacle had been found attached to Fucus sp. Minchin (1996) suggested that strandings of the buoy barnacle are greater nowadays as a result of extra nuclei available for settlement in the form of man-made plastics and oil globules. 

Out of interest, an aggregation of Dosima fascicularis has also been reported from the tail of a yellow-bellied sea snake (Pelamis platurus) in Mexico (Alvarez & Celis, 2004)!

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Wikipedia

Dosima

Dosima fascicularis, the buoy barnacle, is "the most specialised pleustonic goose barnacle" species.[4] It hangs downwards from the water surface, held up by a float of its own construction, and is carried along by ocean currents.

Flotation[edit]

As an adult, D. fascicularis lives attached to a float made either of natural flotsam or of a cement it secretes itself, which has a texture like that of expanded polystyrene foam.[5] It is the only barnacle to produce its own gas-filled float.[3] The cyprid larvae are planktonic, and must attach to a float for metamorphosis into the adult form, but the adults are eventually capable of using their own float, sometimes forming aggregations of many individuals attached to a single float. Among the floats used by adult buoy barnacles are pellets of tar,[6] seaweeds,[3][7] plastic debris,[7] driftwood,[7] feathers,[3][4] cranberries,[3] cuttlefish bone,[3] the "by-the-wind-sailor" Velella velella, seagrass leaves,[4] Styrofoam,[6] seeds,[6] and even apples;[3] they have even been known to colonise the backs of turtles[8] and the sea snake Pelamis platurus.[9] It is a fugitive species, which can be out-competed by other barnacle species, and relies on being able to colonise surfaces and reproduce quickly; after settling on a float, D. fascicularis can reproduce within 45 days.[10] D. fascicularis appears to be increasing in abundance as a result of anthropogenic marine debris accumulating in the sea;[6] this source of floats was of "minor importance" in 1974.[4]

Related species[edit]

Although formerly placed in the genus Lepas, the buoy barnacle is now generally placed in its own monotypic genus, Dosima. Dosima is distinguished from Lepas by the form of the carina, and by the exceptional thinness and brittleness of its exoskeleton.[11]

Distribution[edit]

D. fascicularis has a cosmopolitan distribution, with a preference for temperate seas,[12] having been found at latitudes from 71° North off Siberia to 57° South near Cape Horn.[3] Groups have been observed journeying from Japan to the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean,[3] and sometimes wash up on westerly and southerly beaches in the British Isles, as well as westerly beaches further south in Europe.[5][13] It is not normally found in the Mediterranean Sea, but may have begun to colonise there from the Atlantic Ocean.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dosima Gray, 1825". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved February 27, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Dosima fascicularis (Ellis and Solander, 1786)". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved February 27, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Norman E. Weisbord (1979). "Lepadomorph and verrucomorph barnacles (Cirripedia) of Florida and adjacent waters, with an addendum on the Rhizocephala". Bulletins of American Paleontology 76 (306): 1–156. 
  4. ^ a b c d Lanna Cheng & Ralph A. Lewin (1974). "Goose barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) on flotsam beached at La Jolla, California". Fishery Bulletin 74 (1): 212–217. 
  5. ^ a b Guy Baker, Marine Life Information Network for Britain and Ireland (November 18, 2006). "Beach life". New Scientist 2578: 83. 
  6. ^ a b c d Dan Minchin (1996). "Tar pellets and plastics as attachment surfaces for lepadid cirripedes in the North Atlantic Ocean". Marine Pollution Bulletin 32 (12): 855–859. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(96)00045-8. 
  7. ^ a b c Martin Thiel & Lars Gutow (2005). "The ecology of rafting in the marine environment II: the rafting organisms and community". Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 43: 279–418. doi:10.1201/9781420037449.ch7. 
  8. ^ The Epibiont Research Cooperative (2007). "A synopsis of the literature on the turtle barnacles (Cirripedia: Balanomorpha: Cornuloidea) 1758–2007". Epibiont Research Cooperative Special Publication. No. 1 (ERC–SP1): 62 pp. 
  9. ^ Fernando Alvarez & Antonio Celis (2004). "On the occurrence of Conchoderma virgatum and Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Thoracica) on the sea snake Pelamis platurus (Reptilia, Serpentes) in Jalisco, Mexico". Crustaceana 77 (6): 761–764. doi:10.1163/1568540041958536. JSTOR 20105754. 
  10. ^ W. O. Blankley (1985). "Extreme r-selection in Lepas fascicularis within the Natal offshore fouling community". South African Journal of Science 81: 701.  Cited in Alvarez & Celis (2004).
  11. ^ Iván Hinojosa, Sebastián Boltaña, Domingo Lancellotti, Erasmo Macaya, Pabla Ugalde, Nelson Valdivia, Nelson Vásquez, William A. Newman & Martin Thiel (2006). "Geographic distribution and description of four pelagic barnacles along the south east Pacific coast of Chile - a zoogeographical approximation". Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 79 (1): 13–27. doi:10.4067/S0716-078X2006000100002. 
  12. ^ Diana S. Jones (2003). "The biogeography of Western Australian shallow-water barnacles". In F. E. Wells, D. I. Walker and D. S. Jones. The Marine Flora and Fauna of Dampier, Western Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth. pp. 479–496. ISBN 978-1-920843-07-6. 
  13. ^ P. J. Hayward, M. J. Isaac, P. Makings, J. Moyse, E. Naylor & G. Smaldon (1995). "Crustaceans". In P. J. Hayward & John Stanley Ryland. Handbook of the Marine Fauna of North-west Europe. Oxford University Press. pp. 289–461. ISBN 978-0-19-854055-7. 
  14. ^ M. Sciberras & P. J. Schembri (2007). "A critical review of records of alien marine species from the Maltese Islands and surrounding waters (Central Mediterranean)". Mediterranean Marine Science 8 (1): 41–66. doi:10.12681/mms.162. 
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