The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C. 1985. Epicotyl dormancy in seeds of Cimicifuga racemosa and Hepatica acutiloba. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 112(3): 253-257. [18960]
  • 10. Kotar, John; Kovach, Joseph A.; Locey, Craig T. 1988. Field guide to forest habitat types of northern Wisconsin. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, Department of Forestry; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 217 p. [11510]
  • 13. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 15. Scoggan, H. J. 1978. The flora of Canada. Ottawa, Canada: National Museums of Canada. (4 volumes). [18143]
  • 16. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 17. Smith, Brent H.; Forman, Paul D.; Boyd, Amy E. 1989. Spatial patterns of seed dispersal and predation of two myrmecochorous forest herbs. Ecology. 70(6): 1649-1656. [15861]
  • 18. Steyermark, J. A. 1963. Flora of Missouri. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 1725 p. [18144]
  • 19. Steyermark, J. A.; Steyermark, C. S. 1960. Hepatica in North America. Rhodora. 62: 223-232. [18965]
  • 20. Struik, Gwendolyn J.; Curtis, J. T. 1962. Herb distribution in an Acer saccharum forest. American Midland Naturalist. 68(2): 285-296. [18966]
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 3. Brundrett, Mark C.; Kendrick, Bryce. 1988. The mycorrhizal status, root anatomy, and phenology of plants in a sugar maple forest. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66(6): 1153-1173. [14483]
  • 4. Daubenmire, Rexford F. 1936. The "big woods" of Minnesota: its structure, and relation to climate, fire, and soils. Ecological Monographs. 6(2): 233-268. [2697]
  • 6. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 8. Gleason, Henry A. 1952. Illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Vol. 2. Choripetalous Dicotyledoneae. Lancaster, PA: Lancaster Press, Inc. 655 p. [18962]
  • 9. Jones, G. N.; Fuller, G. D. 1955. Vascular plants of Illinois. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. 593 p. [18964]
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (03/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Ranunculaceae of North America Update
  • Rhodora 62(740): 232. 1960. (Rhodora)


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