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Description and adaptation
Smooth Oxeye is a member of the daisy family, Asteraceae. It is a vigorous, upright, native, perennial forb growing to .4-2 meters in height. The stem is smooth while the leaves are coarsely serrated, having rough, siliceous-based hairs on both surfaces. The stems may be topped with a single, yellow flower, or may branch in to multiple stems with many yellow flowers. The flowers have 10 or more rays and are 3-7 cm in diameter. Unlike sunflowers, each ray may form a fruit that yields a viable seed. The seed is smooth and hard having four sides with fine hairs for wind distribution of seed. It generally does not have a pappus. Though it is a perennial, it is often short-lived.
Distribution: This species is widely distributed across the eastern half of the United States, though it is most often found in the prairie regions of the central United States. It prefers dry soil and open spaces, but will also tolerate moist areas. It can often be found in disturbed areas.