The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (September, 2007) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 10. Dolek, M. and Geyer, A. (2002) Conserving biodiversity on calcareous grasslands in the Franconian Jura by grazing: a comprehensive approach. Biological Conservation, 104: 351 - 360.
  • 2. Still, J. (1996) Butterflies and Moths of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins, London.
  • 3. CITES (April, 2003) http://www.cites.org External link.
  • 4. Carter, D. (2000) Butterflies and Moths. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  • 5. Collins, N.M. and Morris, M.G. (1985) Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
  • 6. Fred, M. (2008) Pers. Comm.
  • 7. Smart, P. (1975) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Butterfly World. Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd, London.
  • 8. Fred, M.S., O'Hara, R.B. and Brommer, J.E. (2006) Consequences of the spatial configuration of resources for the distribution and dynamics of the endangered Parnassius apollo butterfly. Biological Conservation, 130: 183 - 192.
  • 9. Witkowsky, Z., Budzik, J. and Kosior, A. (1994) Restoration of the Apollo butterfly in Pieniny National Park. Green Brigades, Ecologists Paper, 2 (13): 23.
  • Ashton S, Gutiérrez D, Wilson RJ (2009) Effects of temperature and elevation on habitat use by a rare mountain butterfly: implications for species responses to climate change. Ecological Entomology 34: 437-446. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2008.01068.x
  • Deschamps-Cottin M, Roux M, Descimon H (1997) Larval foodplant efficiency and laying preferences in Parnassius apollo L. (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Comptes Rendus De L'Academie Des Sciences Serie III-Sciences De La Vie-Life Sciences 320: 399-406.
  • Fred MS, Brommer JE (2003) Influence of Habitat Quality and Patch Size on Occupancy and Persistence in two Populations of the Apollo Butterfly (Parnassius apollo). Journal of Insect Conservation 7: 85-98. doi: 10.1023/a:1025522603446
  • Fred MS, Brommer JE (2005) The decline and current distribution of Parnassius apollo (Linnaeus) in Finland; the role of Cd. Annales Zoologici Fennici 42: 69-79.
  • Fred MS, Brommer JE (2010) Olfaction and vision in host plant location by Parnassius apollo larvae: consequences for survival and dynamics. Animal Behaviour 79: 313-320. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.11.001
  • Fred MS, O’Hara RB, Brommer JE (2006) Consequences of the spatial configuration of resources for the distribution and dynamics of the endangered Parnassius apollo butterfly. Biological Conservation 130: 183-192. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.12.012
  • Geyer A, Dolek M (2001) Das Artenhilfsprogramm für den Apollofalter (Parnassius apollo) in Bayern. In: Schäffler B (Ed). Artenhilfsprogramme Beiträge zum Artenschutz 23. Bayerisches Landesamt für Umweltschutz, Augsburg: 301-317.
  • Häuser C., Holstein J. & Steiner A. (eds) (2013). GloBIS (GART): Global Butterfly Information System (version Sep 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Nakonieczny M, Kedziorski A, Michalczyk K (2007) Apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo L.) in Europe: its history, decline and perspectives of conservation. Functional Ecosystems and Communities 1: 56-79.
  • Todisco V, Gratton P, Cesaroni D, Sbordoni V (2010) Phylogeography of Parnassius apollo: hints on taxonomy and conservation of a vulnerable glacial butterfly invader. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 101: 169-183.
  • Witkowski Z, Adamski P, Kosior A, Plonka P (1997) Extinction and reintroduction of Parnassius apollo in the Pieniny National Park (Polish Carpathians). Biologia 52: 199-208.


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