The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • (Teleostei: Anguillidae), particularly Anguilla anguilla and A. rostrata. Mar. Biol. 137, 195–204.boundary. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 1056–1061.
  • Aoyama, J., Kobayashi, T., Tsukamoto, K., 1996. Phylogeny of eels suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Nippon Suisan Gakaishi 68, 312–370 (in Japanese).
  • Aoyama, J., Nishida M., N. Tsukamoto, K. Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of the Freshwater Eel, Genus Anguilla. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Volume 20, Issue 3, September 2001, Pages 450–459.
  • Aoyama, J., Nishida, M., Tsukamoto, K., 2001. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the freshwater eel, genus Anguilla. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 20, 450–459.
  • Aoyama, J., Tsukamoto, K., 1997. Evolution of the freshwater eels. Naturwissenschaften 84, 17–21.
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Bastrop, R., Strehlow, B., Ju¨ rss, K., Sturmbauer, C., 2000. A new molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the evolution of freshwater eels. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 14, 250–258.
  • Eschmeyer, William N. 1990. Genera of Recent Fishes. iii + 697
  • Eschmeyer, William N., ed. 1998. Catalog of Fishes. Special Publication of the Center for Biodiversity Research and Information, no. 1, vol 1-3. 2905
  • Fauna Boica, 1 (2), 304, 307.
  • Froese, R. and D. Pauly, Editors. 2011. FishBase: Genus: Anguilla Family: Anguillidae Freshwater eels. Retrieved March 7, 2012 from
  • Halpin, P. 2007. Unagi: Freshwater “Eel”. Anguilla japonica, A. anguilla, A. rostrata. Seafood Watch, Seafood Report. Monterey Aquarium. Retrieved March 7, 2012 from
  • Lehmann, D., Hettwer, H., Taraschewski, H., 2000. RAPD-PCR investigations of systematic relationships among four species of eels
  • Lin, Y.-S., Poh, Y.-P., Tzeng, C.-S., 2001. A phylogeny of freshwater eels inferred from mitochondrial genomes. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 20, 252–261.
  • Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
  • New York (State). Forest, Fish and Game Commission. 1902. Seventh Report of the Forest, Fish and Game Commission of the State of New York, 1901. Albany, NY : J. B. Lyon Company, State Printers; Page 292
  • Tagliavini, J., Gandolfi, G., Cau, A., Salvadori, S., Deiana, A.M., Gandolfi, G., 1995. Mitochondrial DNA variability in Anguilla anguilla and phylogenetical relationships with congeneric species. Boll. Zool. 62, 147–151.
  • Tagliavini, J., Gandolfi, G., Deiana, A.M., Salvadori, S., 1996. Phylogenetic relationship among two Atlantic and three Indo-Pacific Anguilla species (Osteichtyes, Anguillidae). Ital. J. Zool. 63, 271–276.
  • Tsukamoto, K., Aoyama, J., 1998. Evolution of the freshwater eels of the genus Anguilla: a probable scenario. Environ. Biol. Fish. 52, 139–148.
  • US Fish and Wildlife Service, Newsroom, 2011. The American Eel. Retrieved March 7, 2012 from
  • Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. December 12, 2011. “Anguillidae”. Retrieved March 7, 2012 from
  • WoRMS (2014). Anguilla Schrank, 1798. In: Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. (2014) FishBase. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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