The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. Agren, Jon; Willson, Mary F. 1991. Gender variation and sexual differences in reproductive characters and seed production in Gynodioecious geranium maculatum. American Journal of Botany. 78(4): 470-480. [17562]
  • 10. Crozier, Carl R.; Boerner, Ralph E. J. 1984. Correlations of understory herb distribution patterns with microhabitats under different tree species in a mixed mesophytic forest. Oecologia. 62: 337-343. [19193]
  • 11. Cull, Margaret Irene. 1978. Establishing prairie vegetation along highways in the Peoria area. In: Glenn-Lewin, David C.; Landers, Roger Q., Jr., eds. Proceedings, 5th Midwest prairie conference; 1976 August 22-24; Ames, IA. Ames, IA: Iowa State University: 172-177. [3378]
  • 12. Dahlem, Theresa Schutte; Boerner, Ralph E. J. 1987. Effects of canopy light gap and early emergence on the growth and reproduction of Geranium maculatum. Canadian Journal of Botany. 65: 242-245. [19194]
  • 13. De Vault, Dorothea. 1977. Four uncommon groundcovers. American Rock Garden Society Bulletin. 35(1): 36-40. [9508]
  • 15. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 18. Greller, Andrew M.; Locke, David C.; Kilanowski, Victoria; Lotowycz, G. Elizabeth. 1990. Changes in vegetation composition and soil acidity between 1922 and 1985 at a site on the north shore of Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 117(4): 450-458. [19192]
  • 19. Johnson, W. Carter. 1970. Trillium cernuum L. and Geranium maculatum L.: new for South Dakota. Rhodora. 72(792): 554. [19190]
  • 2. Apfelbaum, Steven I.; Haney, Alan W. 1990. Management of degraded oak savanna remnants in the upper Midwest: preliminary results from three years of study. In: Hughes, H. Glenn; Bonnicksen, Thomas M., eds. Restoration `89: the new management challenge: Proceedings, 1st annual meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1989 January 16-20; Oakland, CA. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Society for Ecological Restoration: 280-291. [14705]
  • 20. Jones, Steven M. 1988. Old-growth forests within the Piedmont of South Carolina. Natural Areas Journal. 8(1): 31-37. [11008]
  • 21. Jones, Steven M. 1991. Landscape ecosystem classification for South Carolina. In: Mengel, Dennis L.; Tew, D. Thompson, eds. Ecological land classification: applications to identify the productive potential of southern forests: Proc. of a symp; 1991 January 7-9; Charlotte, NC. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-68. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station: 59-68. [15709]
  • 22. Jones, G. Neville; Jones, Florence Freeman. 1943. A revision of the perennial species of Geranium of the United States and Canada. Rhodora. 45: 5-26, 32-52. [19198]
  • 23. Kron, Kathleen A. 1989. The vegetation of Indian Bowl wet prairie and its adjacent plant communities. I. Description of the vegetation. Michigan Botanist. 28(4): 179-200. [17358]
  • 24. Kucera, Clair L. 1952. An ecological study of a hardwood forest area in central Iowa. Ecological Monographs. 22(4): 283-299. [254]
  • 27. Martin, M. Celine. 1965. An ecological life history of Geranium maculatum. American Midland Naturalist. 73(1): 111-149. [19196]
  • 28. McCall, C.; Primack, R. B. 1987. Resources limit the fecundity of three woodland herbs. Oecologia. 71(3): 431-435. [19188]
  • 29. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 31. Schiffman, Paula M.; Johnson, W. Carter. 1992. Sparse buried seed bank in a southern Appalachian oak forest: implications for succession. American Midland Naturalist. 127(2): 258-267. [18191]
  • 32. Sperka, Marie. 1973. Growing wildflowers: A gardener's guide. New York: Harper & Row. 277 p. [10578]
  • 33. Stamp, Nancy E.; Lucas, Jeffrey R. 1983. Ecological correlates of explosive seed dispersal. Oecologia. 59: 272-278. [11089]
  • 34. Szeicz, J. M.; MacDonald, G. M. 1991. Postglacial vegetation history of oak savanna in southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Botany. 69: 1507-1519. [16607]
  • 36. Wherry, Edgar T. 1923. A soil acidity map of a Long Island wild garden. Ecology. 4(4): 395-401. [19195]
  • 37. Willson, Mary F.; Miller, Linda J.; Rathcke, Beverly J. 1979. Floral display in Phlox and Geranium: adaptive aspects. Evolution. 33(1): 52-63. [19189]
  • 4. Bard, Gily E. 1952. Secondary succession on the Piedmont of New Jersey. Ecological Monographs. 22(3): 195-215. [4777]
  • 5. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 7. Boerner, Ralph E. J. 1986. Seasonal nutrient dynamics, nutrient resorption, and mycorrhizal infection intensity of two perennial forest herbs. American Journal of Botany. 73(9): 1249-1257. [19191]
  • 8. Bronny, Christopher. 1989. One-two punch: grazing history and the recovery potential of oak savannas. Restoration and Management. 7(2): 73-76. [11412]
  • 9. Cahayla-Wynne, Richard; Glenn-Lewin, David C. 1978. The forest vegetation of the Driftless Area, northeast Iowa. American Midland Naturalist. 100(2): 307-319. [10385]
  • Aedo C. (2013). RJB Geranium: Geranium Taxonomic Information System (version Jul 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Aedo, C. Revision of the ~Geranium~ (Geraniaceae) in the New World. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 95: 1–550.
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  • Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Fl. Great Plains i–vii, 1–1392. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2014.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (03/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • L. 1753. In: Sp. Pl. 681
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum 2: 681. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)


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