Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Parnassius bremeri

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.

There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Parnassius bremeri

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)


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Parnassius bremeri

Parnassius bremeri is a high altitude butterfly which is found in Russia, Korea and China . It is a member of the Snow Apollo genus Parnassius of the Swallowtail (Papilionidae) family. Over its vast range (Transbaikal, the Amur and Ussuri regions and the Kuriles), the species varies widely in morphology and many subspecies have been described. P. bremeri is found in open landscapes on forest-steppe, as well as slopes with woodlands up to the alpine zone (1,500 m.).The flight period is May-June. Known host plants are : Sedum - Sedum clizoorl, S. ussuriensis, S. ishida and Orostachys malacophylla.


Specimen of a female from the Amur region

Similar to Parnassius phoebus but smaller and with wing veins almost indistinct against the ground color, Hindwing with a red basal spot.

Note. The wing pattern in Parnassius species is inconsistent and the very many subspecies and forms make identification problematic and uncertain. Structural characters derived from the genitalia, wing venation, sphragis and foretibial epiphysis are more, but not entirely reliable. The description given here is a guide only.For an identification key see Ackery P.R. (1975[1]

White, with black veins. Forewing with 2 black elongate cell spots, 2 costal spots situated beyond the cell, a blackish submarginal band, often represented only by some vestiges, a narrow vitreous distal margin in apical portion of edge, and a blackish spot at hind margin. Hindwing with 2 red ocelli bordered with black, the anterior one being usually the purer in colour and larger; further, the black abdominal area produced forward at apex of cell into a tooth-like projection; anal spots incomplete; a red spot at base above, while below there are 4 large red basal spots with blackish borders, and a continuous line of blackish, often obsolete, submarginal spots. Antenna blackish brown. Fringes of wings black, or partly whitish, especially on hindwing, a marginal line being black. Female rather larger than male, upper side more or less powdered with blackish scaling, the black markings intensified, ill-defined, anal spots of hindwing more distinctly marked, tiiere being, moreover, a blackish, shadowy, submarginal band. Pouch small, leaf-shaped, pointed, on the broad portion of its under surface a longitudinal carina. [2]


partial list

  • P. b. conjunctus Staudinger, 1901 Ussuri
  • P. b. graeseri Honrath, 1885 Transbaikalia
  • P. b. amgunensis Sheljuzhko, 1928 Lower Amur region
  • P. b. hakutozana Matsumura, 1927 Korea
  • P. b. orotschonica Bang-Haas, 1927 Sikhote-Alin
  • P. b. solonensis Bang-Haas, 1927 Sichotin Alin Mountains
  • P. b. pakianus Murayama, 1964 South Korea
  • P. b. lumen Eisner, 1968 Andong, Korea
  • P. b. nipponus Kreuzberg, 1992 Kunashir Island


  1. ^ Ackery P.R. (1975) A guide to the genera and species of Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae). Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.) 31, 4 pdf
  2. ^ Stichel in Seitz, 1906 (Parnassius). Die Groß-Schmetterlinge der Erde. Die Groß-Schmetterlinge des palaearktischen Faunengebietes. Die palaearktischen Tagfalter, Stuttgart.

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