The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Anderson, R.P. and C.O, Handley. 2002. Dwarfism in insular sloths: Biogeography, selection, and evolutionary rate. Evolution 56(5): 1045-1058.
  • Anderson, R.P. and C.O. Handley, JR. 2001. A new species of three-toed sloth (Mammalia: Xenarthra) from Panama , with a review of the genus Bradypus. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 114:1–33.
  • Bradley, J.D. 1982. Two new species of moths (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Chrysauginae) associated with the Three-toed Sloth (Bradypus spp.) in South America. Acta Amazonica 12(3): 649-656.
  • Emmons, L.H. 1990. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Hayssen, V. 2008. Bradypus pygmaeus (Pilosa: Bradypodidae). Mammalian Species No. 812: 1-4.
  • Suutari, M., M. Majaneva, D.P. Fewer, et al. 2010. Molecular evidence for a diverse green algal community growing in the hair of sloths and a specific association with Trichophilus welckeri (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae). BMC EVolutionary Biology 10: 86. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-86
  • Waage, J.K. and G.G. Montgomery. 1976. Cryptoses choloepi: A coprophagous moth that lives on a sloth. Science 193(4248): 157-158.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142
  • de Moraes-Barros, N., J.A.B. Silva, and J.S. Morgante. 2011. Morphology, molecular phylogeny, and taxonomic inconsistencies in the study of Bradypus sloths (Pilosa: Bradypodidae). Journal of Mammalogy 92(1): 86-100.


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