The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Benz, B. W., M. B. Robbins, and A. T. Peterson. 2006. Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): Placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:389–399.
  • Fuchs, J., J.-M. Pons, P.G.P. Ericson, C. Bonillo, A. Couloux, E. Pasquet. 2008. Molecular support for a rapid cladogenesis of the woodpecker clade Malarpicini, with further insights into the genus Picus (Piciformes: Picinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48(1):34-46.
  • Fuchs, J., J. I. Ohlson, P. G. P. Ericson, and E. Pasquet. 2006. Molecular phylogeny and biogeographic history of the piculets (Piciformes: Picumninae). Journal of Avian Biology 37(5):487–496.
  • Fuchs, J., J. I. Ohlson, P. G. P. Ericson, and E. Pasquet. 2007. Synchronous intercontinental splits between assemblages of woodpeckers suggested by molecular data. Zoologica Scripta 36(1):11-25.
  • Laybourne, R. C., D. W. Deedrick, and F. M. Hueber. 1994. Feather in amber is earliest New World fossil of Picidae. Wilson Bull. 106:18–25.
  • Lodato, F. 2008. The nature of design. Boston, MA: Design Management Institute.
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Overton, L. C. and D. D. Rhoads. 2006. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of Xiphidiopicus percussus, Melanerpes, and Sphyrapicus (Aves : Picidae) based on cytochrome b sequence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41(2):288-294.
  • Short, L. L. 1982. Woodpeckers of the World. Delaware Museum of Natural History, Greenville, Delaware.
  • Short, L. L. 1988. Picidae, woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks. In: Birds of Africa. Vol. III. Fry, C.H., Keith, S. and Urban, C.K., eds. Academic Press, London.
  • Styring, A. R. and M. Z. bin Hussin. 2004. Foraging ecology of woodpeckers in lowland Malaysian rain forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20:487–494.
  • Webb, D.M. and W.S. Moore. 2005. A phylogenetic analysis of woodpeckers and their allies using 12S, cyt b, and COI nucleotide sequences (class Aves; order Piciformes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36:233–248.
  • Winkler, H. and D. A. Christie. 2002. Family Picidae (Woodpeckers). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 7. Jacamars to Woodpeckers. BirdLife International and Lynx Editions, Cambridge, UK and Barcelona.
  • Winkler, H., D. Christie, and D. Nurney. 1995. Woodpeckers: A Guide to the Woodpeckers of the World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Winkler, H., N. Kotaka, A. Gamauf, F. Nittinger, and E. Haring. 2005. On the phylogenetic position of the Okinawa woodpecker (Sapheopipo noguchii). Journal of Ornithology 146:103–110.


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