The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, and A. L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. Resource Publication, no. 166. 79
  • Birdsley, J. S. 2002. Phylogeny of the tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae) based on morphology and behavior. Auk 119(3):715-734.
  • Chesser, R. T. 2004. Molecular systematics of New World suboscine birds. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 32:11-24.
  • Cicero, C. and N.K. Johnson. 2002. Phylogeny and character evolution in the Empidonax group of tyrant flycatchers (Aves: Tyrannidae): a test of W. E. Lanyon’s hypothesis using mtDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22:289–302.
  • D. I. Rasmussen, Biotic communities of Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, Ecol. Monogr. 11(3):228-275, from p. 261 (1941).
  • Fitzpatrick, J.W., J.M. Bates, K. S. Bostwick, I. C. Caballero, B. M. Clock, A. Farnsworth, P. A. Hosner, L. Joseph, G. Langham, D.J. Lebbin, J.A. Mobley, M.B. Robbins, E. Scholes, J.G. Tello, B.A. Walther and K.J. Zimmer. 2004. Family Tyrannidae (Tyrant-Flycatchers). Pages 289-290 in Handbook of the Birds of the World: Vol. 9 Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails.(J. del Hoyo, A. Elliot and D. A. Christie, eds). Lynx Editions, Barcelona.
  • Gill, F. and M. Wright. 2006. Birds of the World: Recommended English Names. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Lanyon, W.E. 1988a. A phylogeny of the flatbill and tody-tyrant assemblage of tyrant flycatchers. American Museum Novitates 2923:1–41.
  • Lanyon, W.E. 1988b. A phylogeny of the thirty-two genera in the Elaenia assemblage of tyrant flycatchers. American Museum Novitates 2914:1–57.
  • Lanyon, W.E. 1986. A phylogeny of the thirty-three genera in the Empidonax assemblage of tyrant flycatchers. American Museum Novitates 2846:1–29.
  • McKitrick, M.C., 1985. Monophyly of the Tyrannidae (Aves): comparison of morphology and DNA. Systematic Biology 34:35–45.
  • Mobley, J. A., and Prum, R. O. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships of the Cinnamon Tyrant, Neopipo cinnamomea, to the Tyrant Flycatchers (Tyrannidae). Condor 97: 650-662.
  • Ohlson, J., J. Fjeldså, and P. G. P. Ericson. 2008. Tyrant flycatchers coming out in the open: Phylogeny and ecological radiation of Tyrannidae (Aves, Passeriformes). Zoologica Scripta 37:315-335.
  • P. G. Howes, The Giant Cactus Forest and Its World: A Brief Biology of the Giant Cactus Forest of Our American Southwest (Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, New York; Little, Brown, Boston; 1954), from pp. 222-239, from p. 227.
  • Rheindt, F. E., J. A. Norman, and L. Christidis. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of tyrant-flycatchers (Aves: Tyrannidae), with an emphasis on the elaeniine assemblage. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46(1):88-101.
  • Roy, M. S., J. C. Torres-Mura, and F. Hertel. 1999. Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary history of the tit-tyrants (Aves: Tyrannidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 11:67–76.
  • Tello, J. G. and J. M. Bates. 2007. Molecular phylogenetics of the tody-tyrant and flatbill assemblage of tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae). Auk 124(1):134-154.
  • Tello, J. G., R. G. Moyle, D. J. Marchese, and J. Cracraft. 2009. Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the tyrant flycatchers, cotinga, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannides). Cladistics 25:1-39.
  • WoRMS (2015). Tyrannidae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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