Comprehensive Description

Description of Aspergillus

Aspergillus is a filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungus found in nature. It is commonly isolated from soil, plant debris, and indoor air environment. While a teleomorphic state has been described only for some of the Aspergillus species, others are accepted to be mitosporic, without any known sexual spore production. The genus Aspergillus includes over 185 species. Around 20 species have so far been reported as causative agents of opportunistic infections in man. Among these, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly isolated species, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus glaucus group, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus ustus, and Aspergillus versicolor are among the other species less commonly isolated as opportunistic pathogens.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:2117
Specimens with Sequences:2100
Specimens with Barcodes:1824
Species With Barcodes:363
Public Records:2058
Public Species:363
Public BINs:0
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Barcode data

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Aspergillus /ˌæspərˈɪləs/ is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide.

Aspergillus was first catalogued in 1729 by the Italian priest and biologist Pier Antonio Micheli. Viewing the fungi under a microscope, Micheli was reminded of the shape of an aspergillum (holy water sprinkler), from Latin spargere (to sprinkle), and named the genus accordingly.[1] Today, aspergillum is also the name of an asexual spore-forming structure common to all Aspergillus species; around one-third of species are also known to have a sexual stage.[2]



Aspergillus consists of a few hundred species.[2]

Growth and distribution[edit]

Aspergillus on a tomato in detail

Aspergillus is a member of the Deuteromycetes fungi, which is a group with no known sexual state. With DNA evidence forthcoming, all members of the genus Aspergillus likely are closely related and should be considered members of the Ascomycota. Members of the genus possess the ability to grow where a high osmotic concentration (high sugar, salt, etc.) exists. Aspergillus species are highly aerobic and are found in almost all oxygen-rich environments, where they commonly grow as molds on the surface of a substrate, as a result of the high oxygen tension. Commonly, fungi grow on carbon-rich substrates like monosaccharides (such as glucose) and polysaccharides (such as amylose). Aspergillus species are common contaminants of starchy foods (such as bread and potatoes), and grow in or on many plants and trees.[citation needed]

In addition to growth on carbon sources, many species of Aspergillus demonstrate oligotrophy where they are capable of growing in nutrient-depleted environments, or environments with a complete lack of key nutrients. A. niger is a prime example of this; it can be found growing on damp walls, as a major component of mildew.

Commercial importance[edit]

Various Penicillium, Aspergillus spp. and other fungi growing in axenic culture
Historical model of Aspergillus, Botanical Museum Greifswald

Species of Aspergillus are important medically and commercially. Some species can cause infection in humans and other animals. Some infections found in animals have been studied for years, while other species found in animals have been described as new and specific to the investigated disease, and others have been known as names already in use for organisms such as saprophytes. More than 60 Aspergillus species are medically relevant pathogens.[3] For humans, a range of diseases such as infection to the external ear, skin lesions, and ulcers classed as mycetomas are found.

Other species are important in commercial microbial fermentations. For example, alcoholic beverages such as Japanese sake are often made from rice or other starchy ingredients (like manioc), rather than from grapes or malted barley. Typical microorganisms used to make alcohol, such as yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces, cannot ferment these starches. Therefore, koji mold such as Aspergillus oryzae is used to first break down the starches into simpler sugars.[citation needed]

Members of the genus are also sources of natural products that can be used in the development of medications to treat human disease.[4]

Perhaps the largest application of A. niger is as the major source of citric acid; this organism accounts for over 99% of global citric acid production, or more than 1.4 million tonnes per year.[citation needed] A. niger is also commonly used for the production of native and foreign enzymes, including glucose oxidase and lysozyme. In these instances, the culture is rarely grown on a solid substrate, although this is still common practice in Japan, but is more often grown as a submerged culture in a bioreactor. In this way, the most important parameters can be strictly controlled, and maximal productivity can be achieved. This process also makes it far easier to separate the chemical or enzyme of importance from the medium, and is therefore far more cost-effective.


Four three-day-old Aspergillus colonies. Clockwise from top-left: an A. nidulans laboratory strain; a similar strain with a mutation in the yA marker gene involved in green pigmentation; an A. oryzae strain used in soy fermentation; A. oryzae RIB40
A scan of Aspergillus taken at 235 magnifications under a scanning electron microscope

A. nidulans (Emericella nidulans) has been used as a research organism for many years and was used by Guido Pontecorvo to demonstrate parasexuality in fungi. Recently, A. nidulans was one of the pioneering organisms to have its genome sequenced by researchers at the Broad Institute. As of 2008, a further seven Aspergillus species have had their genomes sequenced: the industrially useful A. niger (two strains), A. oryzae, and A. terreus, and the pathogens A. clavatus, A. fischerianus (Neosartorya fischeri), A. flavus, and A. fumigatus (two strains).[5] A. fischerianus is hardly ever pathogenic, but is very closely related to the common pathogen A. fumigatus; it was sequenced in part to better understand A. fumigatus pathogenicity.[6]

Sexual reproduction[edit]

Of the 250 species of aspergilli, about 64% have no known sexual state.[7] However, many of these species likely have an as yet unidentified sexual stage.[7] Sexual reproduction occurs in two fundamentally different ways in fungi. These are outcrossing (in heterothallic fungi) in which two different individuals contribute nuclei, and self-fertilization or selfing (in homothallic fungi) in which both nuclei are derived from the same individual. In recent years, sexual cycles have been discovered in numerous species previously thought to be asexual. These discoveries reflect recent experimental focus on species of particular relevance to humans.

A. fumigatus is the most common species to cause disease in immunodeficient humans. In 2009, A. fumigatus was shown to have a heterothallic, fully functional sexual cycle.[8] Isolates of complementary mating types are required for sex to occur.

A. flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide. It is also an opportunistic human and animal pathogen, causing aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. In 2009, a sexual state of this heterothallic fungus was found to arise when strains of opposite mating types were cultured together under appropriate conditions.[9]

A. lentulus is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis with high mortality rates. In 2013, A. lentulus was found to have a heterothallic functional sexual breeding system.[10]

A. terreus is commonly used in industry to produce important organic acids and enzymes, and was the initial source for the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin. In 2013, A. terreus was found to be capable of sexual reproduction when strains of opposite mating types were crossed under appropriate culture conditions.[11]

These findings with Aspergillus species are consistent with accumulating evidence, from studies of other eukaryotic species, that sex was likely present in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes.[12][13][14]

A. nidulans, a homothallic fungus, is capable of self-fertilization. Selfing involves activation of the same mating pathways characteristic of sex in outcrossing species, i.e. self-fertilization does not bypass required pathways for outcrossing sex, but instead requires activation of these pathways within a single individual.[15]

Among those Aspergillus species that exhibit a sexual cycle, the overwhelming majority in nature are homothallic (self-fertilizing).[16] This observation suggests Aspergillus species can generally maintain sex though little genetic variability is produced by homothallic self-fertilization. A. fumigatus, a heterothallic (outcrossing) fungus that occurs in areas with widely different climates and environments, also displays little genetic variability either within geographic regions or on a global scale,[17] again suggesting sex, in this case outcrossing sex, can be maintained even when little genetic variability is produced.


The simultaneous publication of three Aspergillus genome manuscripts in Nature in December 2005 established the genus as the leading filamentous fungal genus for comparative genomic studies. Like most major genome projects, these efforts were collaborations between a large sequencing centre and the respective community of scientists. For example, the Institute for Genome Research (TIGR) worked with the A. fumigatus community. A. nidulans was sequenced at the Broad Institute. A. oryzae was sequenced in Japan at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. The Joint Genome Institute of the Department of Energy has released sequence data for a citric acid-producing strain of A. niger. TIGR, now renamed the Venter Institute, is currently spearheading a project on the A. flavus genome.[18]

Genome sizes for sequenced species of Aspergillus range from about 29.3 Mb for A. fumigatus to 37.1 Mb for A. oryzae, while the numbers of predicted genes vary from about 9926 for A. fumigatus to about 12,071 for A. oryzae. The genome size of an enzyme-producing strain of A. niger is of intermediate size at 33.9 Mb.[1]


Some Aspergillus species cause serious disease in humans and animals. The most common pathogenic species are A. fumigatus and A. flavus, which produces aflatoxin which is both a toxin and a carcinogen, and which can contaminate foods such as nuts. The most common species causing allergic disease are A. fumigatus and A. clavatus. Other species are important as agricultural pathogens. Aspergillus spp. cause disease on many grain crops, especially maize, and some variants synthesize mycotoxins, including aflatoxin.


Main article: Aspergillosis
Pulmonary aspergillosis

Aspergillosis is the group of diseases caused by Aspergillus. The most common subtype among paranasal sinus infections associated with aspergillosis is A. fumigatus.[19] The symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain, or breathlessness, which also occur in many other illnesses, so diagnosis can be difficult. Usually, only patients with already weakened immune systems or who suffer other lung conditions are susceptible.

In humans, the major forms of disease are:[20][21]

  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, which affects patients with respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, and sinusitis
  • Acute invasive aspergillosis, a form that grows into surrounding tissue, more common in those with weakened immune systems such as AIDS or chemotherapy patients
  • Disseminated invasive aspergillosis, an infection spread widely through the body
  • Aspergilloma, a "fungus ball" that can form within cavities such as the lung

Aspergillosis of the air passages is also frequently reported in birds, and certain species of Aspergillus have been known to infect insects.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Bennett JW (2010). "An Overview of the Genus Aspergillus". Aspergillus: Molecular Biology and Genomics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-53-0. 
  2. ^ a b Geiser, D. (2009). "Sexual structures in Aspergillus: morphology, importance and genomics". Medical mycology : official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. 47. Suppl 1 (s1): S21–S26. doi:10.1080/13693780802139859. PMID 18608901.  edit
  3. ^ a b Thom C, Church M. The Aspergilli. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1926.
  4. ^ US 6069146 
  5. ^ Wortman; Gilsenan, J.; Joardar, V.; Deegan, J.; Clutterbuck, J.; Andersen, M.; Archer, D.; Bencina, M.; Braus, G.; Coutinho, P.; Von Döhren; Doonan, J.; Driessen, A. J.; Durek, P.; Espeso, E.; Fekete, E.; Flipphi, M.; Estrada, C. G.; Geysens, S.; Goldman, G.; De Groot; Hansen, K.; Harris, S. D.; Heinekamp, T.; Helmstaedt, K.; Henrissat, B.; Hofmann, G.; Homan, T.; Horio, T.; Horiuchi, H. (2009). "The 2008 update of the Aspergillus nidulans genome annotation: a community effort". Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B. 46. Suppl 1 (1): S2–S13. doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2008.12.003. PMC 2826280. PMID 19146970.  edit
  6. ^ "Descriptions – Aspergillus Comparative". Broad Institute. Archived from the original on 22 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-15. 
  7. ^ a b Dyer PS, O'Gorman CM (December 2011). "A fungal sexual revolution: Aspergillus and Penicillium show the way". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 14 (6): 649–54. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2011.10.001. PMID 22032932. 
  8. ^ O'Gorman CM, Fuller H, Dyer PS (January 2009). "Discovery of a sexual cycle in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus". Nature 457 (7228): 471–4. doi:10.1038/nature07528. PMID 19043401. 
  9. ^ Horn BW, Moore GG, Carbone I (2009). "Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus". Mycologia 101 (3): 423–9. doi:10.3852/09-011. PMID 19537215. 
  10. ^ Swilaiman SS, O'Gorman CM, Balajee SA, Dyer PS (July 2013). "Discovery of a sexual cycle in Aspergillus lentulus, a close relative of A. fumigatus". Eukaryotic Cell 12 (7): 962–9. doi:10.1128/EC.00040-13. PMC 3697472. PMID 23650087. 
  11. ^ Arabatzis M, Velegraki A (2013). "Sexual reproduction in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus terreus". Mycologia 105 (1): 71–9. doi:10.3852/11-426. PMID 23074177. 
  12. ^ Malik SB, Pightling AW, Stefaniak LM, Schurko AM, Logsdon JM (2008). "An expanded inventory of conserved meiotic genes provides evidence for sex in Trichomonas vaginalis". PLoS ONE 3 (8): e2879. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002879. PMC 2488364. PMID 18663385. 
  13. ^ Bernstein H and Bernstein C (2013). Evolutionary Origin and Adaptive Function of Meiosis. In Meiosis: Bernstein C and Bernstein H, editors. ISBN 978-953-51-1197-9, InTech, http://www.intechopen.com/books/meiosis/evolutionary-origin-and-adaptive-function-of-meiosis
  14. ^ Heitman J, Sun S, James TY (2013). "Evolution of fungal sexual reproduction". Mycologia 105 (1): 1–27. doi:10.3852/12-253. PMID 23099518. 
  15. ^ Paoletti M, Seymour FA, Alcocer MJ, Kaur N, Calvo AM, Archer DB, Dyer PS (August 2007). "Mating type and the genetic basis of self-fertility in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans". Curr. Biol. 17 (16): 1384–9. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.07.012. PMID 17669651. 
  16. ^ Dyer PS, O'Gorman CM (January 2012). "Sexual development and cryptic sexuality in fungi: insights from Aspergillus species". FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 36 (1): 165–92. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2011.00308.x. PMID 22091779. 
  17. ^ Rydholm C, Szakacs G, Lutzoni F (April 2006). "Low genetic variation and no detectable population structure in aspergillus fumigatus compared to closely related Neosartorya species". Eukaryotic Cell 5 (4): 650–7. doi:10.1128/EC.5.4.650-657.2006. PMC 1459663. PMID 16607012. 
  18. ^ Machida, M; Gomi, K (editors) (2010). Aspergillus: Molecular Biology and Genomics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-53-0. 
  19. ^ Bozkurt MK, Ozcelik T, Saydam L, Kutluay L. [A case of isolated aspergillosis of the maxillary sinus]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2008; 18(1): 53–5.
  20. ^ "Aspergillosis". MedScape. 
  21. ^ Wilson WR et al. Current diagnosis and treatment in Infect Dis. Lange, 2001

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List of Aspergillus species

The list of Aspergillus species includes several hundred species, including;[1]

Aspergillus acidus[2]
Aspergillus aculeatinus[2]
Aspergillus aculeatus
Aspergillus aeneus[2]
Aspergillus affinis[2]
Aspergillus alabamensis[2]
Aspergillus alliaceus
Aspergillus amazonicus[2]
Aspergillus ambiguus[2]
Aspergillus amoenus[2]
Aspergillus amstelodami[2]
Aspergillus amyloliquefaciens[2]
Aspergillus amylovorus[2]
Aspergillus anomalus[2]
Aspergillus anthodesmis[2]
Aspergillus apicalis[2]
Aspergillus appendiculatus[2]
Aspergillus arachidicola[2]
Aspergillus arenarius[2]
Aspergillus arvii[2]
Aspergillus asperescens[2]
Aspergillus aurantiobrunneus[2]
Aspergillus aureofulgens[2]
Aspergillus aureolatus[2]
Aspergillus aureoterreus[2]
Aspergillus aureus[2]
Aspergillus auricomus[2]
Aspergillus austroafricanus[2]
Aspergillus avenaceus[2]
Aspergillus awamori[2]
Aspergillus baeticus[2]
Aspergillus bahamensis[2]
Aspergillus biplanus[2]
Aspergillus bisporus[2]
Aspergillus bombycis[2]
Aspergillus brasiliensis[2]
Aspergillus brevipes[2]
Aspergillus brevistipitatus[2]
Aspergillus bridgeri[2]
Aspergillus brunneo-uniseriatus[2]
Aspergillus brunneoviolaceu[2]
Aspergillus caelatus[2]
Aspergillus caesiellus
Aspergillus caespitosus
Aspergillus calidoustus[2]
Aspergillus campestris[2]
Aspergillus candidus
Aspergillus capensis[2]
Aspergillus carbonarius[2]
Aspergillus carneus
Aspergillus cavernicola[2]
Aspergillus cavernicola[2]
Aspergillus cervinus[2]
Aspergillus chevalieri[2]
Aspergillus chungii[2]
Aspergillus cibarius[2]
Aspergillus clavatoflavus[2]
Aspergillus clavatonanicus[2]
Aspergillus clavatus
Aspergillus conicus[2]
Aspergillus conjunctus[2]
Aspergillus conversis[2]
Aspergillus coreanus[2]
Aspergillus coremiiformis[2]
Aspergillus costaricensis[2]
Aspergillus costiformis[2]
Aspergillus creber[2]
Aspergillus cretensis[2]
Aspergillus cristatus[2]
Aspergillus crustosus[2]
Aspergillus crystallinus[2]
Aspergillus cvjetkovicii[2]
Aspergillus deflectus
Aspergillus delacroixii[2]
Aspergillus delicatus[2]
Aspergillus densus[2]
Aspergillus dentatulus[2]
Aspergillus depauperatus[2]
Aspergillus dessyi[2]
Aspergillus digitatus[2]
Aspergillus dimorphicus[2]
Aspergillus diplocystis[2]
Aspergillus discophorus[2]
Aspergillus disjunctus[2]
Aspergillus diversus[2]
Aspergillus dorothicus[2]
Aspergillus dubius[2]
Aspergillus dubius[2]
Aspergillus duricaulis[2]
Aspergillus dybowskii[2]
Aspergillus eburneocremeus[2]
Aspergillus eburneus[2]
Aspergillus echinosporus[2]
Aspergillus echinulatus[2]
Aspergillus ecuadorensis[2]
Aspergillus effusus[2]
Aspergillus egyptiacus
Aspergillus elatior[2]
Aspergillus elegans[2]
Aspergillus ellipsoideus[2]
Aspergillus ellipticus[2]
Aspergillus elongatus[2]
Aspergillus equitis[2]
Aspergillus erythrocephalus[2]
Aspergillus falconensis[2]
Aspergillus fasciculatus[2]
Aspergillus fennelliae[2]
Aspergillus ferrugineus[2]
Aspergillus ferrugineus[2]
Aspergillus ficuum[2]
Aspergillus fiemonthi[2]
Aspergillus filifera[2]
Aspergillus fimetarius[2]
Aspergillus fimeti[2]
Aspergillus fischeri[2]
Aspergillus fischerianus
Aspergillus fischerianus[2]
Aspergillus flaschentraegeri[2]
Aspergillus flavescens[2]
Aspergillus flavidus[2]
Aspergillus flavipes[2]
Aspergillus flavofurcatus[2]
Aspergillus flavoviridescens[2]
Aspergillus flavus
Aspergillus flocculosus[2]
Aspergillus floriformis[2]
Aspergillus foeniculicola[2]
Aspergillus foetidus
Aspergillus fonsecaeus[2]
Aspergillus foutoynontii[2]
Aspergillus foveolatus[2]
Aspergillus fresenii[2]
Aspergillus fruticans[2]
Aspergillus fruticulosus[2]
Aspergillus fujiokensis[2]
Aspergillus fuliginosus[2]
Aspergillus fulvus[2]
Aspergillus fumaricus[2]
Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis[2]
Aspergillus fumigatoides[2]
Aspergillus fumigatus
Aspergillus fumisynnematus[2]
Aspergillus fungoides[2]
Aspergillus funiculosus[2]
Aspergillus fuscus[2]
Aspergillus galeritus[2]
Aspergillus giganteus[2]
Aspergillus gigantosulphureus[2]
Aspergillus gigas[2]
Aspergillus glaber[2]
Aspergillus glaucoaffinis[2]
Aspergillus glauconiveus[2]
Aspergillus glaucus
Aspergillus globosus[2]
Aspergillus godfrini[2]
Aspergillus gorakhpurensis[2]
Aspergillus gracilis[2]
Aspergillus granulatus[2]
Aspergillus granulosus[2]
Aspergillus gratioti[2]
Aspergillus greconis[2]
Aspergillus griseus[2]
Aspergillus guttifer[2]
Aspergillus gymnosardae[2]
Aspergillus halophilicus[2]
Aspergillus halophilus[2]
Aspergillus helicothrix[2]
Aspergillus hennebergii[2]
Aspergillus herbariorum[2]
Aspergillus heterocaryoticus[2]
Aspergillus heteromorphus[2]
Aspergillus heterothallicus[2]
Aspergillus heyangensis[2]
Aspergillus hiratsukae[2]
Aspergillus hollandicus [2]
Aspergillus homomorphus[2]
Aspergillus hortae[2]
Aspergillus humicola[2]
Aspergillus humus[2]
Aspergillus ibericus
Aspergillus igneus[2]
Aspergillus iizukae[2]
Aspergillus implicatus[2]
Aspergillus incrassatus[2]
Aspergillus indicus[2]
Aspergillus indohii[2]
Aspergillus ingratus[2]
Aspergillus insecticola[2]
Aspergillus insuetus[2]
Aspergillus insulicola[2]
Aspergillus intermedius[2]
Aspergillus inuii[2]
Aspergillus itaconicus[2]
Aspergillus ivoriensis[2]
Aspergillus janus[2]
Aspergillus japonicus[2]
Aspergillus jeanselmei[2]
Aspergillus kambarensis[2]
Aspergillus kanagawaensis[2]
Aspergillus kassunensis[2]
Aspergillus katsuobushi[2]
Aspergillus keveii[2]
Aspergillus koningii[2]
Aspergillus laciniosus[2]
Aspergillus lacticoffeatus[2]
Aspergillus laneus[2]
Aspergillus lanosus[2]
Aspergillus laokiashanensis[2]
Aspergillus lateralis[2]
Aspergillus lentulus
Aspergillus lepidophyton[2]
Aspergillus leporis[2]
Aspergillus leucocarpus[2]
Aspergillus lignieresii[2]
Aspergillus longivesica[2]
Aspergillus longobasidia[2]
Aspergillus luchensi[2]
Aspergillus luchuensis[2]
Aspergillus lucknowensis[2]
Aspergillus luteoniger[2]
Aspergillus luteovirescens[2]
Aspergillus lutescens[2]
Aspergillus luteus[2]
Aspergillus macfiei[2]
Aspergillus macrosporus[2]
Aspergillus malignus[2]
Aspergillus malodoratus[2]
Aspergillus malvaceus[2]
Aspergillus mandshuricus[2]
Aspergillus manginii[2]
Aspergillus mannitosus[2]
Aspergillus maritimus[2]
Aspergillus mattletii[2]
Aspergillus maximus[2]
Aspergillus medius [2]
Aspergillus melitensis[2]
Aspergillus melleus[2]
Aspergillus mellinus[2]
Aspergillus mencieri[2]
Aspergillus michelii[2]
Aspergillus microcephalus[2]
Aspergillus microcysticus[2]
Aspergillus microsporus[2]
Aspergillus microthecius[2]
Aspergillus microviridicitrinus[2]
Aspergillus minimus[2]
Aspergillus minisclerotigenes V[2]
Aspergillus minor[2]
Aspergillus minutus [2]
Aspergillus miyajii[2]
Aspergillus miyakoensis[2]
Aspergillus mollis[2]
Aspergillus montenegroi[2]
Aspergillus montevidensis[2]
Aspergillus mucoroides[2]
Aspergillus mucoroideus[2]
Aspergillus muelleri[2]
Aspergillus multicolor[2]
Aspergillus multiplicatus[2]
Aspergillus muricatus[2]
Aspergillus muscivora[2]
Aspergillus mutabilis[2]
Aspergillus mycetomi-villabruzzii[2]
Aspergillus mycobanche[2]
Aspergillus nakazawae[2]
Aspergillus nantae[2]
Aspergillus nanus[2]
Aspergillus navahoensis[2]
Aspergillus neobridgeri[2]
Aspergillus neocarnoyi[2]
Aspergillus neoellipticus[2]
Aspergillus neoglaber[2]
Aspergillus nidulans
Aspergillus nidulellus[2]
Aspergillus niger
Aspergillus nigrescens[2]
Aspergillus nigricans[2]
Aspergillus nishimurae[2]
Aspergillus niveoglaucus[2]
Aspergillus niveus[2]
Aspergillus noelting[2]
Aspergillus nominus[2]
Aspergillus nomius[2]
Aspergillus novofumigatus[2]
Aspergillus novus[2]
Aspergillus ochraceopetaliformis[2]
Aspergillus ochraceoroseus[2]
Aspergillus ochraceoruber[2]
Aspergillus ochraceus
Aspergillus okazakii[2]
Aspergillus olivaceofuscus[2]
Aspergillus olivaceus[2]
Aspergillus olivascens[2]
Aspergillus olivicola[2]
Aspergillus omanensis[2]
Aspergillus onikii[2]
Aspergillus oosporus[2]
Aspergillus ornatulus[2]
Aspergillus ornatus[2]
Aspergillus oryzae
Aspergillus ostianus[2]
Aspergillus otanii[2]
Aspergillus ovalispermus[2]
Aspergillus paleaceus[2]
Aspergillus pallidus[2]
Aspergillus panamensis[2]
Aspergillus paradoxus[2]
Aspergillus parasiticus
Aspergillus parrulus[2]
Aspergillus parvathecius[2]
Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus[2]
Aspergillus parviverruculosus[2]
Aspergillus parvulu[2]
Aspergillus paulistensi[2]
Aspergillus penicillatus[2]
Aspergillus penicilliformis[2]
Aspergillus penicillioides[2]
Aspergillus penicillioideum[2]
Aspergillus penicilloides
Aspergillus penicillopsis[2]
Aspergillus periconioides[2]
Aspergillus perniciosus[2]
Aspergillus persii[2]
Aspergillus petrakii[2]
Aspergillus peyronelii[2]
Aspergillus phaeocephalus[2]
Aspergillus phialiseptatus[2]
Aspergillus phoenicis[2]
Aspergillus pidoplichknovii[2]
Aspergillus piperis[2]
Aspergillus polychromus[2]
Aspergillus pouchetii[2]
Aspergillus primulinus[2]
Aspergillus profusus[2]
Aspergillus proliferans[2]
Aspergillus protuberus[2]
Aspergillus pseudocarbonarius[2]
Aspergillus pseudocitricus[2]
Aspergillus pseudoclavatus[2]
Aspergillus pseudodeflectus[2]
Aspergillus pseudoelatior[2]
Aspergillus pseudoelegans[2]
Aspergillus pseudoflavus[2]
Aspergillus pseudoglaucus[2]
Aspergillus pseudoheteromorphus[2]
Aspergillus pseudoniger[2]
Aspergillus pseudoniger[2]
Aspergillus pseudotamarii[2]
Aspergillus pulchellus[2]
Aspergillus pulmonum-hominis[2]
Aspergillus pulverulentus[2]
Aspergillus pulvinus[2]
Aspergillus puniceus[2]
Aspergillus purpureofuscus[2]
Aspergillus purpureus[2]
Aspergillus pusillus [2]
Aspergillus pyramidus[2]
Aspergillus pyri[2]
Aspergillus qinqixianii[2]
Aspergillus qizutongii[2]
Aspergillus quadricinctus[2]
Aspergillus quadricingens[2]
Aspergillus quadrifidus[2]
Aspergillus quadrilineatus[2]
Aspergillus quercinus[2]
Aspergillus quininae[2]
Aspergillus quitensis[2]
Aspergillus racemosus[2]
Aspergillus raianus[2]
Aspergillus rambellii[2]
5 Aspergillus ramosus[2]
Aspergillus raperi[2]
Aspergillus recurvatus[2]
Aspergillus rehmii[2]
Aspergillus repandus[2]
Aspergillus repens[2]
Aspergillus reptans[2]
Aspergillus restrictus
Aspergillus rhizopodus[2]
Aspergillus robustus[2]
Aspergillus roseoglobosus[2]
Aspergillus roseoglobulosus[2]
Aspergillus roseovelutinus[2]
Aspergillus roseus[2]
Aspergillus roseus[2]
Aspergillus ruber[2]
Aspergillus rubrobrunneus[2]
Aspergillus rubrum[2]
Aspergillus rufescens[2]
Aspergillus rugulosus[2]
Aspergillus rugulovalvus[2]
Aspergillus rutilans[2]
Aspergillus sacchari[2]
Aspergillus saitoi[2]
Aspergillus salviicola[2]
Aspergillus sartoryi[2]
Aspergillus scheelei[2]
Aspergillus schiemanniae[2]
Aspergillus sclerogenus[2]
Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius[2]
Aspergillus sclerotioniger[2]
Aspergillus sclerotiorum[2]
Aspergillus sejunctus[2]
Aspergillus septatus[2]
Aspergillus sepultus[2]
Aspergillus silvaticus[2]
Aspergillus simplex[2]
Aspergillus sojae
Aspergillus sparsus[2]
Aspergillus spathulatus[2]
Aspergillus spectabilis[2]
Aspergillus spelunceus[2]
Aspergillus spiculosus[2]
Aspergillus spinosus[2]
Aspergillus spinulosus[2]
Aspergillus spiralis[2]
Aspergillus stella-maris[2]
Aspergillus stellatus[2]
Aspergillus stellifer[2]
Aspergillus stercoreus[2]
Aspergillus sterigmatophorus[2]
Aspergillus steynii[2]
Aspergillus stramenius[2]
Aspergillus striatulus[2]
Aspergillus striatus[2]
Aspergillus stromatoides[2]
Aspergillus strychni[2]
Aspergillus subfuscus[2]
Aspergillus subgriseus[2]
Aspergillus sublatus[2]
Aspergillus sublevisporus[2]
Aspergillus subolivaceus[2]
Aspergillus subsessilis[2]
Aspergillus subunguis[2]
Aspergillus sulphureus[2]
Aspergillus sulphureus[2]
Aspergillus sunderbanii[2]
Aspergillus sydowii
Aspergillus sylvaticus[2]
Aspergillus syncephalis[2]
Aspergillus tabacinus[2]
Aspergillus taichungensis[2]
Aspergillus takakii[2]
Aspergillus taklimakanensis[2]
Aspergillus tamari
Aspergillus tapirirae[2]
Aspergillus tardus[2]
Aspergillus tatenoi[2]
Aspergillus terrestris[2]
Aspergillus terreus
Aspergillus terricola[2]
Aspergillus testaceocolorans[2]
Aspergillus tetrazonus[2]
Aspergillus thermomutatus[2]
Aspergillus thomi[2]
Aspergillus tiraboschii[2]
Aspergillus togoensis[2]
Aspergillus tokelau[2]
Aspergillus tonophilus[2]
Aspergillus toxicarius[2]
Aspergillus tritici[2]
Aspergillus tsurutae[2]
Aspergillus tuberculatus[2]
Aspergillus tubingensis[2]
Aspergillus tunetanus[2]
Aspergillus udagawae[2]
Aspergillus umbrinus[2]
Aspergillus umbrosus[2]
Aspergillus undulatus[2]
Aspergillus unguis[2]
Aspergillus unilateralis[2]
Aspergillus usamii[2]
Aspergillus ustilago[2]
Aspergillus ustus
Aspergillus uvarum[2]
Aspergillus vadensis[2]
Aspergillus vancampenhoutii[2]
Aspergillus varanasensis[2]
Aspergillus variabilis[2]
Aspergillus varians[2]
Aspergillus variecolor[2]
Aspergillus variegatus[2]
Aspergillus velutinus[2]
Aspergillus venezuelensis[2]
Aspergillus versicolor
Aspergillus vinosobubalinus[2]
Aspergillus violaceobrunneus[2]
Aspergillus violaceofuscus[2]
Aspergillus violaceus[2]
Aspergillus virens[2]
Aspergillus viridigriseus[2]
Aspergillus viridinutans[2]
Aspergillus vitellinus[2]
Aspergillus vitis[2]
Aspergillus vitricola[2]
Aspergillus wangduanlii[2]
Aspergillus warcupii[2]
Aspergillus wehmeri[2]
Aspergillus welwitschiae[2]
Aspergillus wentii[2]
Aspergillus westendorpii[2]
Aspergillus westerdijkiae[2]
Aspergillus xerophilus[2]
Aspergillus yezoensis[2]
Aspergillus zhaoqingensis[2]
Aspergillus zonatus[2]


  1. ^ Geiser, D. (2009). "Sexual structures in Aspergillus: morphology, importance and genomics". Medical mycology : official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. 47. Suppl 1 (s1): S21–S26. doi:10.1080/13693780802139859. PMID 18608901.  edit
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