The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • "Arachnid". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). 1989.
  • A. C. Twomey, The bird population of an elm-maple forest with special reference to aspection, territorialism, and coactions, Ecol. Monogr. 15(2):175-205, from p. 202 (1945).
  • Braddy, S. J., R. J. Aldridge, S. E. Gabbott, and J. N. Theron. 1999. Lamellate book-gills in a late Ordovician eurypterid from the Soom Shale, South Africa: support for a eurypterid-scorpion clade. Lethaia 32:72-74.
  • Coddington, J. A. and R. K. Colwell. 2001. Arachnids. Pages 199-218 in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. Volume 1. S. A. Levin, ed. Academic Press, San Diego, California.
  • Dunlop, J. A. and M. Webster. 1999. Fossil evidence, terrestrialization and arachnid phylogeny. Journal of Arachnology 27:86-93.
  • Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler, C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18:5-70.
  • Harvey, M. S. 2002. The neglected cousins: What do we know about the smaller Arachnid orders? Journal of Arachnology 30(2):357-372.
  • Harvey, M. S. 2007. The smaller arachnid orders: diversity, descriptions and distributions from Linnaeus to the present (1758 to 2007). Pages 363-380 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A., eds. Linnaeus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668:1–766.
  • Harvey, Mark S. 2002. The neglected cousins: what do we know about the smaller arachnid orders?. The Journal of Arachnology, vol. 30, no. 2. 357-372
  • Joel Cracraft & Michael Donoghue, ed. (2004). Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press. p. 297.
  • L. F. Jiron and V. M. Cartin, 1981. Insect succession in the decomposition of a mammal in Costa Rica. J. New York Entomol. Soc. 89:158-165, from p. 163.
  • N. C. Collins, R. Mitchell and R. G. Wiegert, 1976. Functional analysis of a thermal spring ecosystem, with an evaluation of the role of consumers. Ecology 57:1221-1232, from p. 1222.
  • Shultz, J. W. 1989. Morphology of locomotor appendages in Arachnida - evolutionary trends and phylogenetic implications. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 97:1-56.
  • Shultz, J. W. 1990. Evolutionary morphology and phylogeny of Arachnida. Cladistics 6:1-38.
  • Shultz, J. W. 1994. The limits of stratigraphic evidence in assessing phylogenetic hypotheses of recent arachnids. Journal of Arachnology 22:169-172.
  • Shultz, J. W. 2007. A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150(2):221–265.
  • Starobogatov, Y. I. 1990. System and phylogeny of Arachnida (analysis of morphology of paleozoic groups) [Russian]. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 24:4-17.
  • Weygoldt, P. 1998. Evolution and systematics of the Chelicerata. Experimental & Applied Acarology 22:63-79.
  • Weygoldt, P. and H. F. Paulus. 1979. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie, Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Chelicerata. 1. Morphologische Untersuchungen.. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 17:85-116.
  • Weygoldt, P. and H. F. Paulus. 1979. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie, Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Chelicerata. 2. Cladogramme und die Entfaltung der Chelicerata. Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 17:177-200.
  • Wheeler, W. C. and C. Y. Hayashi. 1998. The phylogeny of the extant chelicerate orders. Cladistics 14:173-192.
  • WoRMS (2014). Arachnida. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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